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Oculomotor Systems and Perception - Sheldon M. Ebenholtz

Oculomotor Systems and Perception

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Published: 15th March 2012
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Oculomotor systems that regulate eye movements play an important role in accounting for certain qualities of visual experience. They are implicated in a wide array of perceptual topics, from apparent size, depth, and distance, to apparent slant and vertical orientation. This text emphasizes the role of oculomotor systems in perception, and discusses the basic characteristics of such oculomotor systems as those controlling vergence, pursuit, the vestibulo-ocular response, and saccadic eye movements. This volume introduces fundamental concepts in physiological optics, and explores the mechanisms of perception, with a focus on eye movements and the diverse implications of oculomotor research.

'... a valuable and challenging companion to a conventional textbook in an undergraduate course on perception. At the graduate level, it would serve well as the central reading along with selected papers from the primary literature. Perhaps most important, it stands as an important work of scholarship, calling attention of all serious students of vision to the fundamental importance of oculomotor systems in visual experience.' Optometry and Vision Science

Figure Captionsp. xiv
Table Headingsp. xviii
Forewordp. xix
Prefacep. xxi
Introductionp. 1
The Context for Perceptionp. 1
Elements of Consciousnessp. 2
The Illusion of Publicityp. 2
Stimulation and Common Sensory Responsep. 3
Aspects of Realityp. 4
Direct and Indirect Aspectsp. 4
Virtual Reality and Nonveridical Experiencep. 5
Brain as Mind Machinep. 6
The Relation of Structure to Functionp. 6
A Role for Motor Systems in the Study of Perceptionp. 7
Egocentrically Speakingp. 8
Some Basic Concepts of Physiological Opticsp. 10
Introductionp. 10
Imagesp. 11
Light Vergencep. 12
Lensesp. 17
Why Lenses and Prisms Change the Path of Lightp. 20
Prism Diopters and Ocular Convergencep. 22
Dioptrics of Deduced and Reduced Eyesp. 24
Oculomotor Systemsp. 29
Introductionp. 29
Types of Eye Movementsp. 29
The Teleology Game, or "What Is Its Function?": Two Nonmutually Exclusive Answersp. 30
Directional Eye Movements and Ocular Musclesp. 31
Accommodationp. 35
The Basic Mechanism in Primatesp. 35
Reflexive Accommodation and the Dark Focusp. 36
Voluntary Control of Accommodationp. 39
Pupillary Movements and the Irisp. 39
Functional Aspectsp. 40
Vergencep. 41
Definition, Functionality, Decussation, and Stereopsisp. 41
Vergence-Stimulated Accommodationp. 43
Voluntary Vergencep. 45
Vergence Resting Level and Its Adaptationp. 48
The Saccadic Systemp. 51
Saccadic Suppressionp. 51
Pulses and Stepsp. 53
Basic Attributesp. 55
Adaptation within the Saccadic Systemp. 56
The Optokinetic Reflex (OKR), Smooth Pursuit (SP), and the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR)p. 57
Functional Significancep. 57
Optokinetic Reflexp. 57
Smooth Pursuitp. 58
Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex and Its Adaptationsp. 59
The Otolith--Ocular Reflexesp. 66
Signalling Mechanismsp. 66
Ocular Counterrolling and the Doll Reflexp. 68
Otolith--Ocular Adaptation in Outer Spacep. 72
An Overview of Oculomotor Systemsp. 73
Categories of Oculomotor Functionp. 73
Oculomotor Factors in Perceptionp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Information Extraction and Perceptual Attributionp. 76
Perceptual Properties of Oculomotor Systemsp. 76
Radial Egocentric Directionp. 76
The Egocenter and the Cyclopean Eyep. 77
Perceptual Effects of Biased Horizontal Eye-Position Informationp. 80
Apparent Visual Directionp. 80
Apparent Frontal-Plane Orientationp. 87
Perceptual Effects of Biased Vertical Eye-Position Informationp. 88
Apparent Horizon and the Pitch Boxp. 88
Apparent Visual Direction and the Doll Reflexp. 90
Induced Vertical Phoria and Apparent Heightp. 91
Apparent Vertical Orientation in the Pitch Planep. 95
Apparent Vertical and Horizontal Orientation in the Frontal Planep. 97
Perceptual Effects of Vergence and Accommodationp. 101
Direct Affect on Distance Perceptionp. 101
Indirect Affect on Apparent Size and Apparent Depthp. 105
Perceptual Instability After Biasing the VORp. 109
Eliminating the VORp. 110
Atypical Stimulationp. 110
Perceptual Effects of Adapting the Amplitude and Direction of the VORp. 111
Illusions of Motion and Extent Resulting from Pursuit, Saccades, and the Pursuit Suppression of the Optokinetic Reflexp. 113
Pursuitp. 113
Saccadesp. 118
Pursuit Suppression of the Optokinetic Reflexp. 120
Illusory Percepts After Vibrotactile Stimulation of Extraocular Musclep. 121
Theoretical Issues and Underlying Mechanismsp. 124
Introductionp. 124
Compensation Theories: Role of Reflexive and Voluntary Eye Movements in Normative Perception and Illusionsp. 125
Position Constancyp. 126
Sources of Sentiencep. 127
Oculogyral Illusionp. 130
Light vs. Dark Environmentsp. 130
The Paralyzed-Eye Paradigmp. 131
The Eye-Press Paradigmp. 134
Eye-Press and Altered Vergence Innervationp. 135
The Adaptation Paradigm and Altered Vergence Innervationp. 136
Ocular Muscle Vibrationp. 137
Eye Movements and Vectionp. 138
Introductionp. 138
Oculomotor Mechanisms vs. Cognitive Statep. 138
Ocular Muscle Vibration, Againp. 142
Conclusionp. 143
Eye Movements and Motion Sicknessp. 143
Virtually Ubiquitousp. 144
Functional Significancep. 146
Treisman's Neurotoxin--Mimetic Theoryp. 146
Positional Alcohol Nystagmus (PAN): A Better Model for the Inner Ear Facilitation of the Emetic Response to Poisonsp. 147
Eye Movements and the Vagus Nerve Connectionp. 148
The Coriolis Maneuver and Eye-Muscle Tractionp. 150
Supporting Evidencep. 153
Concluding Remarksp. 154
Summaryp. 154
Implicationsp. 155
Unresolved Issuesp. 155
The Perceptual-Integration Problemp. 155
The Vection Problemp. 156
The Sentience Problemp. 157
The Mind--Brain Problemp. 157
The Ametropias and Other Common Visual Anomaliesp. 159
Introductionp. 159
Myopiap. 160
Hyperopiap. 162
Refractive Error and Axial Length Distributionsp. 162
Presbyopiap. 164
Astigmatismp. 166
Anisometropia and Aniseikoniap. 166
Amblyopia and Strabismusp. 167
Glaucomap. 167
Heterophoriap. 169
Asthenopiap. 170
Referencesp. 173
Subject Indexp. 201
Author Indexp. 206
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521804592
ISBN-10: 0521804590
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 236
Published: 15th March 2012
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.8 x 15.2  x 1.7
Weight (kg): 0.44