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Oceanic Hotspots : Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonism - R. Hekinian

Oceanic Hotspots

Intraplate Submarine Magmatism and Tectonism

By: R. Hekinian (Editor), Peter Stoffers (Editor), Jean-Louis Cheminee (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st May 2004
ISBN: 9783540408598
Number Of Pages: 480

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Ocean Hotspots provides a comprehensive overview of recent and ongoing research on intraplate volcanism in the ocean basins with special emphasis on the Pacific Ocean. The geology of the seamounts and their associated seamount chains is described, along with detailed geophysical, geochemical and hydrothermal observations made by a multi-disciplinary group of marine geoscientists. These observations lead to a deeper understanding of how the ascending mantle melts, represented by hotspots, are able to penetrate the lithosphere, build seamounts, and enhance hydrothermal circulation. The "fixed" hotspot-generated seamount chains also provide key constraints on plate tectonic reconstructions on the Earth's crust.

Introductionp. 1
Referencesp. 7
Sea-Floor Topography and Morphology of the Superswell Regionp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Data Sources and Methodsp. 12
Sea-floor Morphology in French Polynesiap. 15
Bathymetric Expression of the Superswellp. 15
Midplate Swellsp. 17
Plate Boundary Featuresp. 18
Off-Ridge Featuresp. 20
Conclusionsp. 25
Acknowledgementsp. 26
Referencesp. 26
Seismicity of the Society and Austral Hotspots in the South Pacific: Seismic Detection, Monitoring and Interpretation of Underwater Volcanismp. 29
Introductionp. 29
Seismic Waves Usedp. 30
Seismic Tremorsp. 32
T Wavesp. 34
Volcano-Seismic Activities on the Society Hotspotp. 35
Generalities and Chronological Eventsp. 35
The Over-All Seismicity of the Society Hotspotp. 37
Seismic Detection, Magnitude and Seismic Momentp. 38
Overview of the Swarmsp. 39
Evolution of the Swarms and Nature of the Recorded Eventsp. 45
Frequency-Magnitude Relationshipp. 52
Seismic and Magmatic Activity in the Society Hotspot Volcanoesp. 55
Volcano-Seismic Activity of the Austral Hotspot: Macdonald Seamountp. 59
Seismic Swarmsp. 60
Bathymetric Surveys of the Macdonald Seamountp. 63
Summary and Conclusionsp. 65
Society Hotspotp. 67
Austral Hotspotp. 68
General Conclusionsp. 69
Acknowledgementsp. 70
Referencesp. 70
A Global Isostatic Load Model and its Application to Determine the Lithospheric Density Structure of Hotspot Swellsp. 73
Introductionp. 73
Isostasy of the Lithospheric Platep. 74
Lithostatic Loadp. 74
The Generalized Equation of Isostatic Loadp. 76
Reference Modelp. 80
Compensation Depthp. 80
Lithospheric Densityp. 82
Location of the Reference Columnp. 84
Lithospheric Density Structure of Hotspot Swellsp. 95
Introductionp. 95
French Polynesia, South Pacific Super Swellp. 96
Hawaiian-Emperor Island Chainp. 102
Mascarene-Reunion Hotspot Trackp. 109
Ascension Islandp. 112
The Great Meteor and Josephine Seamountsp. 116
Icelandp. 120
Subsidence of Hotspot Structuresp. 133
Conclusionsp. 136
Acknowledgementsp. 136
Referencesp. 137
Origin of the 43 Ma Bend Along the Hawaiian-Emperor Seamount Chainp. 143
Introductionp. 143
The Emperor Seamount Chain Paradoxp. 145
Paleomagnetic Interpretationsp. 145
A Simple Testp. 146
The E-SMC Paradox and Solutionp. 148
The Origin of the 43 Ma Bendp. 148
Reasoning Towards a Preferred Modelp. 148
"Trench Jam" at 43 Ma Caused by the Arrival of Hawaiian Plume Head/Oceanic Plateaup. 149
Evidence Versus Coincidencep. 151
Summary and Conclusionp. 152
Acknowledgementsp. 153
Referencesp. 153
South Pacific Intraplate Volcanism: Structure, Morphology and Style of Eruptionp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Society Hotspotp. 158
Abyssal Hill Region and Limits of Hotspot Volcanismp. 161
The Sea Floor ("Bulge") Around the Hotspot Edificesp. 163
The Volcanic Edifices of the Society Hotspotp. 165
Austral Hotspotp. 175
The Submarine Edifices of the Austral Hotspotp. 175
Pitcairn Hotspotp. 178
Volcanic Edifices of the Pitcairn Hotspotp. 180
The Distribution and Extent of Hotspot Volcanismp. 187
Hotspot Versus Non-Hotspot Volcanoesp. 190
Sea-Floor Lineation and Seamount Distributionp. 191
Morphological Classification of Intraplate Volcanoesp. 194
Style of Eruption and Formation of Hotspot Edificesp. 197
Types of Eruptionp. 197
The Formation of a Volcanic Edificep. 198
Relationship Between Hotspot Volcanic Edificesp. 200
Summary and Conclusionsp. 201
Acknowledgementsp. 203
Referencesp. 203
Submarine Landslides in French Polynesiap. 209
Introductionp. 209
Geological Settingp. 210
Datap. 212
Landslide Characterizationp. 213
Landslides of the Society Islandsp. 214
Mehetiap. 214
Moua Pihaa Seamountp. 214
Tahitip. 215
Mooreap. 217
Huahinep. 217
Raiatea-Tahaap. 217
Bora Borap. 219
Tupaip. 220
Austral Island Landslidesp. 222
Macdonaldp. 222
Rapap. 222
Raivavaep. 224
Tubuaip. 224
Aragop. 227
Rurutup. 229
Rimatarap. 231
Classification of the Society and Austral Landslidesp. 233
Geometric Characteristicsp. 233
Seismic Velocityp. 235
Evolution of the Mass Wasting with the Age of the Edificesp. 235
Landslide Related to Submarine Active Volcanoesp. 235
Landslide Related to Young Oceanic Islands (<4 Ma)p. 236
Landslide Related to Older Oceanic Islands (>4 Ma)p. 236
Landslide Related to Tectonic Eventsp. 236
Conclusionp. 236
Acknowledgementsp. 237
Referencesp. 237
Mantle Plumes are NOT From Ancient Oceanic Crustp. 239
Introductionp. 239
Petrological Argumentsp. 240
Melting of Oceanic Crust Cannot Produce the High Magnesian Melts Parental to Many OIB Suitesp. 240
Geochemical Argumentsp. 240
Melting of Subduction-Zone Dehydrated Residual Oceanic Crusts Cannot Yield the Trace Element Systematics in OIBp. 240
OIB Sr-Nd-Hf Isotopes Record no Subduction-Zone Dehydration Signaturesp. 242
Mineral Physics Argumentsp. 246
Subducted Oceanic Crusts are too Dense to Rise to the Upper Mantlep. 247
Basaltic Melts in the Lower Mantle Conditions are Denser than Ambient Solid Peridotitesp. 248
Summaryp. 249
Acknowledgementsp. 250
Referencesp. 250
The Sources for Hotspot Volcanism in the South Pacific Oceanp. 253
Introductionp. 253
The Hotspot Chains of the South East Pacificp. 254
Cook-Australsp. 256
Society Islandsp. 260
Pitcairn-Gambier Chainp. 264
Marquesas Islandsp. 265
Juan Fernandez Chainp. 268
Foundation Seamountsp. 272
Easter/Sala y Gomez-Nazca Chainp. 273
Discussion: Petrogenesis of South East Pacific Hotspotsp. 274
Location of Magma Sources: Plume, Asthenosphere or Lithosphere? 274
Superswell-How Geochemically Different is It?p. 275
Acknowledgementsp. 280
Referencesp. 280
Plume-Ridge Interactions: New Perspectivesp. 285
Introductionp. 285
Conceptsp. 286
Mantle Plumes: Deep-Rooted Hot Materials or Wet Shallow Mantle Melting Anomalies?p. 286
Nature of Plume Materialsp. 286
Ocean Ridges: Ridge Suction-The Active Driving Force for Plume-Ridge Interactionsp. 288
Ridge Suction Increase with Increasing Spreading Ratep. 290
The Effect of Plume-Ridge Distancep. 292
Examplesp. 292
"Proximal" Versus "Distal" Plume-Ridge Interactionsp. 292
Spreading Rate Directs Plume Flowsp. 294
Summary and Conclusionp. 301
Acknowledgementsp. 304
Referencesp. 304
Intraplate Gabbroic Rock Debris Ejected from the Magma Chamber of the Macdonald Seamount (Austral Hotspot): Comparison with Other Provincesp. 309
Introductionp. 309
The Macdonald Seamountp. 312
Eruptive Activityp. 312
Morphology and Structurep. 313
Sampling and Observationsp. 314
Volcanic Terrainsp. 314
Petrologyp. 315
Analytical Techniquesp. 315
Rock Descriptionsp. 320
Geochemistryp. 331
Discussionp. 336
Comparison with Gabbros Recovered from Mid-Ocean Ridgesp. 336
Comparison with Gabbroic Ejecta from Other Intraplate Regionsp. 338
Origin of the Macdonald Seamount Gabbroic Clastsp. 341
Summary and Conclusionsp. 343
Acknowledgementsp. 344
Referencesp. 344
The Foundation Chain: Inferring Hotspot-Plate Interaction from a Weak Seamount Trailp. 349
Introductionp. 349
Sample Preparation and Analytical Procedurep. 351
Sample Selection and Preparationp. 351
Dating Techniquep. 351
Irradiation and Analysisp. 353
Data Reductionp. 355
Resultsp. 363
Migration of Volcanism Along the Foundation Chainp. 363
Hotspot-Spreading Center / Microplate Interactionp. 363
Volcanic Elongated Ridges (VERs)p. 364
Discussionp. 367
VERs and the Pacific-Antarctic Spreading Axisp. 367
Foundation VERs and the Selkirk Microplatep. 368
Pacific Plate Motionp. 369
Implications for Plume-Hotspot Theoryp. 370
Conclusionsp. 371
Acknowledgementsp. 372
Referencesp. 372
Hydrothermal Iron and Manganese Crusts from the Pitcairn Hotspot Regionp. 375
Introductionp. 375
Geological Settingp. 376
Sample Descriptionp. 378
Mineralogyp. 379
Age Datingp. 381
Biomineralizationp. 382
Chemical Compositionp. 385
Fe Crustsp. 388
Mn Crustsp. 390
Rare Earth Elements (REE)p. 393
Formation of Fe and Mn Crustsp. 395
Conclusionsp. 398
Acknowledgementsp. 399
Referencesp. 399
Appendixp. 401
Methane Venting into the Water Column Above the Pitcairn and the Society-Austral Seamounts, South Pacificp. 407
Introductionp. 407
Geological Settingp. 409
Methodsp. 410
Results and Discussionp. 411
Water Column Characteristics and Methane Distributionp. 411
Origin of Hydrothermal Methanep. 423
Conclusionsp. 425
Acknowledgementsp. 426
Referencesp. 426
Petrology of Young Submarine Hotspot Lava: Composition and Classificationp. 431
Introductionp. 431
Composition and Description of Oceanic Rocksp. 432
Common Mineral Constituentsp. 432
Rock Typesp. 436
Relationship Between Intraplate-Hotspot and Spreading-Ridge Magmatismp. 449
Compositional Differences Among Hotspotsp. 450
Relationship between Large and Small Hotspot Edificesp. 451
Volcanic Stratigraphyp. 454
Summary and Conclusionsp. 455
Acknowledgementsp. 457
Referencesp. 457
Indexp. 461
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540408598
ISBN-10: 3540408592
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 480
Published: 1st May 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.04