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Nutrient Requirements of Dogs and Cats : Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals - Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition

Hardcover Published: 30th June 2006
ISBN: 9780309086288
Number Of Pages: 424

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The book provides details on carbohydrates, fiber, dietary fats and fatty acids, energy, protein and amino acids, minerals, and vitamins, while also reviewing the importance of adequate amounts of water. Specifically, it includes: - Updated estimates of requirements for all nutrients.- Factors affecting food intake.- Commentary on nutrient metabolism, toxicity, deficiency, and nutritionally related disease.- Impacts of physiologic status, temperature, breed, age, physical activity, and environment on nutrition.- Unique biological characteristics affecting nutrient digestion and utilization.- Considerations of feed ingredients, diet formulation, and feed processing and manufacturing.- Principles of feeding pet and laboratory animals. The committee also reviews advances in dog and cat nutrition since the last edition was published in the mid-1980's, discusses government regulation of the dog and cat food market, and deals with a variety of issues of interest.

Overviewp. 1
Comparative Digestive Physiology of Dogs and Catsp. 5
Introductionp. 5
Digestive Compartments and Functionsp. 6
Mouthp. 6
Esophagusp. 7
Stomachp. 7
Gastric Emptyingp. 8
Small Intestine, Pancreas, and Liverp. 8
Large Intestinep. 10
Hormonal Aspects of Digestionp. 12
Measurement of, and Factors Affecting, Digestibilityp. 12
Referencesp. 17
Feeding Behavior of Dogs and Catsp. 22
Food Ingestion by Feral Dogs and Catsp. 22
Diurnal Rhythms, and Feeding and Drinking Patternsp. 22
Role of Imprinting and Social Factors on Feeding Behaviorp. 23
Dietary Choice, Palatability, Learned Taste Aversions, and Preferencesp. 24
Control of Food Intakep. 25
Feeding Recommendationsp. 25
Referencesp. 26
Energyp. 28
Introductionp. 28
Energy Evaluation and Requirements: Two Ways of Looking at the Issuep. 28
Energy Evaluationp. 28
Methods of Estimating Energy in Foodp. 28
Prediction of Energy Contentp. 29
Energy Requirements of Dogsp. 33
Definitionsp. 33
Basis for Establishing Energy Requirementsp. 33
Basal Metabolic Ratep. 34
Diet-Induced Thermogenesis and Resting Fed Metabolic Ratep. 35
Adult Maintenancep. 35
Gestationp. 36
Lactationp. 37
Growthp. 38
Physical Activityp. 39
Energy Requirements of Catsp. 39
Basis for Establishing Energy Requirementsp. 39
Basal Metabolic Rate and Dietary Thermogenesisp. 40
Adult Maintenancep. 40
Gestationp. 42
Lactationp. 42
Growthp. 45
Energy Deficiency and Excess in Dogs and Catsp. 45
Body Conditionp. 45
Referencesp. 45
Carbohydrates and Fiberp. 49
Definition, Classification, and Measurementp. 49
Absorbable Carbohydratesp. 49
Digestible Carbohydratesp. 49
Fermentable Carbohydratesp. 49
Nonfermentable Carbohydratesp. 51
Absorbable Carbohydrates (Monosaccharides and Sugar Alcohols)p. 51
Presence in Foodstuffsp. 51
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 51
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 51
Nutritive Valuep. 52
Physicochemical Effectsp. 52
Physiological Effectsp. 52
Health-Related Characteristicsp. 54
Digestible Carbohydrates (Disaccharides, Certain Oligosaccharides, and Nonstructural Polysaccharides)p. 54
Presence in Foodstuffsp. 54
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 54
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 55
Nutritive Valuep. 57
Physicochemical Effectsp. 57
Physiological Effectsp. 58
Health-Related Characteristicsp. 59
Fermentable Carbohydrates (Lactose, Certain Oligosaccharides, Dietary Fibers, and Resistant Starch)p. 60
Presence in Foodstuffsp. 60
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 60
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 61
Nutritive Valuep. 62
Physicochemical Effectsp. 62
Physiological Effectsp. 63
Health-Related Characteristicsp. 67
Poorly Fermentable Carbohydrates (Cellulose and Wheat Bran)p. 69
Presence in Foodstuffsp. 69
Digestion, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 69
Factors Affecting Digestibility, Absorption, and Utilizationp. 70
Nutritive Valuep. 70
Physicochemical Effectsp. 70
Physiological Effectsp. 70
Health-Related Characteristicsp. 71
Carbohydrates in Dog and Cat Diet Formulationsp. 72
Referencesp. 74
Fat and Fatty Acidsp. 81
Importance of Dietary Fats and Fatty Acidsp. 81
Types and Sources of Dietary Fats and Fatty Acidsp. 81
Nomenclaturep. 81
Sourcesp. 82
Trans Fatty Acidsp. 83
Medium-Chain Triacylglycerolsp. 83
Conjugated Linoleic Acidp. 83
Other Sourcesp. 84
Analytical Proceduresp. 84
Acid Hydrolysisp. 84
Extraction and Saponification of Fatty Acidsp. 84
Extraction for Total Lipid Analysisp. 84
Fat Energy and Nutrient Densityp. 85
Digestion and Absorptionp. 85
Preduodenal Lipasep. 85
Pancreatic Lipasep. 85
Other Lipasesp. 86
Summary of Triacylglycerol Hydrolysisp. 86
Absorptionp. 86
Digestibilityp. 87
Biochemical Basis of Fatty Acid Essentialityp. 88
Biosynthesisp. 88
Desaturation and Elongationp. 88
Fatty Acid Ratiosp. 88
Essential Fatty Acid Utilization for Structure and Functionp. 90
Comparative Studiesp. 90
Membrane Composition and Integrityp. 90
Lipid-Protein Interactionsp. 90
Eicosanoid Productionp. 90
Growth and Developmentp. 91
Canine Studiesp. 92
Signs of Deficiency or Excessp. 92
Skin and Hair Coatp. 93
Inflammatory and Immune Cell Structure and Functionp. 94
Feline Studiesp. 95
Signs of Deficiency or Excessp. 95
Evidence for Limited [Delta]6 Desaturase Activitiesp. 96
Dietary LCPUFA and Feline Life Stagep. 96
Immune, Inflammatory, and Platelet Cell Functionsp. 97
Requirements, Recommendations, and Allowancesp. 97
Essential Fatty Acids for Dogs and Catsp. 98
Dogsp. 98
Fat Content of Diets: Preferences, Minima, and Maximap. 98
Growthp. 99
Adult Maintenancep. 100
Gestation and Lactationp. 101
Catsp. 102
Fat Content of Diets: Preferences, Minima, and Maximap. 102
Growthp. 102
Adult Maintenancep. 103
Gestation and Lactationp. 104
Referencesp. 104
Protein and Amino Acidsp. 111
Basic Conceptsp. 111
Introductionp. 111
Structure and Functionp. 111
Essentiality of Amino Acidsp. 112
Digestibility and Bioavailability of Protein and Amino Acidsp. 112
Assessing Protein and Amino Acid Statusp. 114
Requirements, Allowances, and Tolerances of Protein and Amino Acidsp. 114
Role of Metabolic Adaptation in Protein and Amino Acid Nutritionp. 114
Nitrogen (Crude Protein) Minimum Requirements, Recommended Allowances, and Adequate Intakesp. 116
Amino Acid Minimum Requirements, Recommended Allowances, Adequate Intakes, and Safe Upper Limitsp. 120
Dispensable Amino Acidsp. 134
Amino Acid Imbalances and Antagonismsp. 137
Referencesp. 138
Mineralsp. 145
Introductionp. 145
Minerals and Acid-Base Balancep. 145
Macromineralsp. 147
Calciump. 147
Phosphorusp. 152
Magnesiump. 156
Sodiump. 159
Potassiump. 162
Chloridep. 166
Trace Mineralsp. 168
Ironp. 168
Copperp. 171
Zincp. 173
Manganesep. 177
Seleniump. 179
Iodinep. 181
Other Mineralsp. 184
Arsenicp. 184
Boronp. 184
Chromiump. 184
Molybdenump. 185
Siliconp. 185
Nickelp. 185
Vanadiump. 186
Miscellaneous Mineralsp. 186
Referencesp. 186
Vitaminsp. 193
Introductionp. 193
Vitamin Ap. 194
Absorption, Transport, and Storagep. 195
Biological Functionp. 196
Dogsp. 197
Catsp. 199
Vitamin Dp. 200
Absorption, Transport, and Storagep. 200
Biological Functionp. 201
Dogsp. 201
Catsp. 204
Vitamin Ep. 205
Absorptionp. 206
Biological Functionp. 206
Dogsp. 208
Catsp. 209
Vitamin Kp. 210
Absorption, Metabolism, and Excretionp. 210
Biological Functionp. 210
Dogsp. 211
Catsp. 212
Thiamin (Vitamin B[subscript 1])p. 212
Absorptionp. 213
Biological Functionp. 213
Dogsp. 213
Catsp. 215
Riboflavinp. 216
Absorptionp. 216
Biological Functionp. 216
Dogsp. 216
Catsp. 217
Vitamin B[subscript 6]p. 218
Absorption, Transport, and Storagep. 218
Biological Functionp. 218
Dogsp. 219
Catsp. 220
Niacinp. 220
Absorptionp. 221
Biological Functionp. 221
Dogsp. 222
Catsp. 223
Pantothenic Acidp. 223
Absorption, Transport, and Storagep. 223
Biological Functionp. 224
Dogsp. 224
Catsp. 225
Cobalamin (Vitamin B[subscript 12])p. 225
Absorptionp. 225
Biological Functionp. 226
Dogsp. 226
Catsp. 227
Folic Acidp. 227
Absorption, Transport, and Storagep. 228
Biological Functionp. 228
Dogsp. 228
Catsp. 229
Biotinp. 230
Absorptionp. 230
Biological Functionp. 230
Dogsp. 231
Catsp. 231
Cholinep. 231
Absorptionp. 232
Biological Functionp. 232
Dogsp. 232
Catsp. 233
Ascorbic Acidp. 234
Biological Functionp. 234
Dogsp. 235
Catsp. 235
Vitamin-Like Substancesp. 235
Vitamin Losses During Processing and Storage of Dog and Cat Foodsp. 236
Referencesp. 237
Waterp. 246
General Principlesp. 246
Functionp. 246
Regulation of Intake by Dogs and Catsp. 246
Deficiency in Dogs and Catsp. 247
Requirements of Dogsp. 247
Requirements for Maintenancep. 247
Requirements for Other Life Stagesp. 248
Requirements for Work and Environmental Stressp. 248
Requirements of Catsp. 249
Requirements for Maintenance and Other Life Stagesp. 249
Water and Feline Lower Urinary Tract Healthp. 249
Recommended Allowancesp. 249
Toxicity in Dogs and Catsp. 250
Referencesp. 250
Special Considerations for Laboratory Animalsp. 252
Requirementsp. 252
Energyp. 252
Nutrients Other Than Energyp. 252
Food Selectionp. 252
Generalp. 252
Certified Dietsp. 254
Purified and Chemically Defined Dietsp. 254
Foods for Specific Dietary Purposes (e.g., Medical Foods)p. 254
Feeding Managementp. 255
Life-Stage Designation of Foodp. 255
Form of Foodp. 255
Amount Fedp. 255
Frequency of Feedingp. 256
Storage of Foodp. 256
Referencesp. 256
Physical Activity and Environmentp. 258
Introductionp. 258
Calculations and Assumptionsp. 258
How Much Exercise Do Dogs and Cats Undertake?p. 259
Dogsp. 259
Catsp. 260
Types of Exercise: Sprinting Versus Endurancep. 260
Sprint Exercise Over a Distance of Less Than One Kilometerp. 260
Endurance Exercise Over Distances Greater Than One Kilometerp. 260
Traditional Diets Fed to Racing Dogsp. 260
Sled Dogsp. 260
Greyhoundsp. 262
Diet and Health During Exercisep. 262
Effect of Exercise on Intestinal Functionp. 262
Exercise and Digestibilityp. 263
When to Feed Exercising Dogsp. 263
Exercise and Body Conditionp. 265
Effect of Confinement and Trainingp. 266
Energy Requirementsp. 267
Minimal Metabolismp. 267
Anxietyp. 267
Circadian Rhythmsp. 268
Cold-Induced Thermogenesisp. 268
Nutrients in a Warm Environmentp. 272
Effect of Reduced Oxygen at High Altitudep. 272
Effect of Exercise on Energy Requirementsp. 273
Effect of Exercise on Energy Required in the Absence of Exercisep. 273
Energy Required for Exercise: Dynamic Exercise (Short Runs) Versus Steady-State Exercise (Long Runs)p. 273
Maximal Oxygen Consumptionp. 279
Intensity of Exercisep. 281
Field Metabolic Ratep. 281
Nutrient Requirementsp. 284
How May Nutrient Requirements Change with Exercise or in the Cold?p. 284
Sources of Energy: Fat Versus Carbohydratep. 285
Protein and Exercisep. 287
Studies That Have Altered Both Fat and Protein in the Diet of Exercising Dogsp. 291
Dietary Carbohydrate and Exercisep. 292
Importance of Water and Water Requirements at High Ambient Temperaturesp. 292
Exercised-Induced Hyperthermia and the Importance of Water During Exercisep. 293
Water Requirements at Rest and During Exercisep. 294
Sodium, Potassium, and Chloridep. 296
Fluids Containing Electrolytesp. 298
Calcium, Phosphorus, and Magnesiump. 298
Trace Mineralsp. 299
Vitaminsp. 300
Other Nutrientsp. 303
Referencesp. 304
Diet Formulation and Feed Processingp. 313
Petfood Processingp. 313
General Considerationsp. 313
Dogsp. 313
Catsp. 313
Petfood Categoriesp. 313
Dry Petfoodsp. 313
Semi-moist Petfoodsp. 314
Soft-Expanded (Soft Dry) Petfoodsp. 315
Baked Petfoodsp. 315
Starch-Lipid Complexesp. 315
Snacks for Petsp. 315
Canned (Wet) Petfoodsp. 316
Homemade Dietsp. 317
Diet Formulationp. 317
Summaryp. 317
Referencesp. 318
Nutrient Composition of Ingredients Used in Dog and Cat Foodsp. 319
Referencesp. 343
Other Food Constituentsp. 344
Constituents Intended for Nutritive Valuep. 344
Introductionp. 344
Chondroprotective Agentsp. 344
Antioxidantsp. 345
Probiotics (Direct-Fed Microbials) and Enzymesp. 347
Herbs and Botanicalsp. 347
Otherp. 348
Constituents Intended for Technical or Nonnutritive Effects on Foodp. 348
Introductionp. 348
Preservativesp. 348
Flavors and Extractsp. 350
Colorsp. 350
Other Additivesp. 351
Referencesp. 351
Nutrient Requirements and Dietary Nutrient Concentrationsp. 354
Use of Nutrient Requirement Tablesp. 355
Recommendations Relative to ME Compared with Requirements Relative to DMp. 355
Requirements Relative to ME in the Food Compared with Requirements Relative to BWp. 355
Note on Bioavailabilityp. 356
Referencesp. 370
Appendixes
About the Authorsp. 371
Acronyms and Abbreviationsp. 374
Indexp. 377
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780309086288
ISBN-10: 0309086280
Series: Nutrient Requirements of Domestic Animals
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 424
Published: 30th June 2006
Publisher: National Academies Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 27.9 x 21.6  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.4