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Nutrient Cycling and Limitation : Hawai'i as a Model System - Peter M. Vitousek

Nutrient Cycling and Limitation

Hawai'i as a Model System

Paperback

Published: 26th July 2004
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The availability or lack of nutrients shapes ecosystems in fundamental ways. From forest productivity to soil fertility, from the diversity of animals to the composition of microbial communities, nutrient cycling and limitation are the basic mechanisms underlying ecosystem ecology. In this book, Peter Vitousek builds on over twenty years of research in Hawai'i to evaluate the controls and consequences of variation in nutrient availability and limitation.

Integrating research from geochemistry, pedology, atmospheric chemistry, ecophysiology, and ecology, Vitousek addresses fundamental questions: How do the cycles of different elements interact? How do biological processes operating in minutes or hours interact with geochemical processes operating over millions of years? How does biological diversity interact with nutrient cycling and limitation in ecosystems? The Hawaiian Islands provide the author with an excellent model system for answering these questions as he integrates across levels of biological organization. He evaluates the connections between plant nutrient use efficiency, nutrient cycling and limitation within ecosystems, and nutrient input-output budgets of ecosystems.

This book makes use of the Hawaiian ecosystems to explore the mechanisms that shape productivity and diversity in ecosystems throughout the world. It will be essential reading for all ecologists and environmental scientists.

Winner of the 2005 Marsh Ecology Book of the Year Award, British Ecological Society "[Vitousek's] work began by understanding the interactive controls over nutrient limitation after forest disturbance. In Nutrient Cycling and Limitation, Vitousek explores this theme on a grand canvas, basing it on his own work and that of a small army of students and collaborators... This book will reward reading and re-reading, and is an excellent introduction to biogeochemical ecology for those coming from other fields of science."--David Schimel, Nature "One of the most impressive aspects of Nutrient Cycling and Limitatio is the scope of the material it covers, and the extent to which the material is integrated to provide a truly ecosystem-level overview, that is itself placed neatly within a global context... [T]he book provides a wide-ranging and authoritative coverage of a crucial topic."--Graeme Hastwell, Austral Ecology "Peter Vitousek's Nutrient Cycling and Limitation makes an important contribution to the field of biogeochemistry... [An] excellent book... Nutrient Cycling and Limitation is essential reading for students and scientists interested in terrestrial biogeochemistry. It is a model of good science writing and a crisp and clear introduction to some of the big ideas that intrigue ecosystem ecologists."--Jerry Melillo, Bioscience

List of Tablesp. xi
List of Figuresp. xiii
Prefacep. xix
Introductionp. 1
The Hawaiian Islands as a Model Ecosystemp. 6
Model Systemsp. 6
Microcosms and Well-studied Systemsp. 8
A Brief Natural Historyp. 9
The Formation of the Hawaiian Islandsp. 9
Determinants of Climatep. 15
Isolationp. 19
Evolution, Conservation, and Culturep. 20
Evolution and Speciationp. 20
Conservation Biologyp. 22
Cultural Evolutionp. 22
Gradients in Environmental Factors, Gradients in Ecosystemsp. 24
The State Factor Frameworkp. 24
Environmental Gradients as Model Systemsp. 26
Temperaturep. 27
Precipitationp. 29
The Mauna Loa Matrixp. 30
A Substrate Age Gradient across the Hawaiian Islandsp. 31
Age Controlp. 35
Climate Historyp. 35
Basic Features of the Gradientp. 39
Patterns and Processes in Long-term Ecosystem Developmentp. 42
A Theory for Nutrient Dynamics during Ecosystem Developmentp. 42
Biogeochemical Processes on the Substrate Age Gradientp. 45
Soil P Poolsp. 45
C and N Poolsp. 45
Available Nutrientsp. 46
Foliar Nutrientsp. 49
Forest Productivityp. 51
Efficiencies of Resource Usep. 53
Decomposition and Nutrient Regenerationp. 59
Soil Organic Matter Turnoverp. 66
Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedbacksp. 66
Experimental Studies of Nutrient Limitation and the Regulation of Nutrient Cyclingp. 70
Fertilization Experimentsp. 71
Nutrient Limitationp. 74
Nutrient Availability and Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedbackp. 78
Tissue Nutrient Concentrationsp. 78
Productivityp. 78
Resource Efficienciesp. 79
Decompositionp. 84
Nutrient Regenerationp. 87
Controls of Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedbackp. 87
Nutrient Inputs to Hawaiian Ecosystems: Pathways, Rates, and Controlsp. 92
Inputs of Elementsp. 92
Weatheringp. 93
Concepts and Definitionsp. 93
Approachesp. 94
Element Inputs via Weatheringp. 97
Atmospheric Inputsp. 98
Backgroundp. 98
Deposition Measurementsp. 100
Inputs of Waterp. 101
Nitrogen Inputsp. 101
Influence of an Active Volcanop. 102
Inputs of Other Elementsp. 103
Long-Distance Dust Transportp. 105
Backgroundp. 105
Methodsp. 105
Element Inputsp. 106
The Fate of Dustp. 107
Biological N Fixationp. 109
Backgroundp. 109
Approachp. 109
Rates of Fixationp. 110
Other Inputsp. 110
Combined Inputs by All Known Pathwaysp. 111
Strontium Isotopes: A Direct Test of Input Pathwaysp. 112
Chloride and Sulfatep. 114
Mobile Cationsp. 114
Silicon and Aluminump. 116
Nitrogen and Phosphorusp. 117
Nutrient Outputs: Pathways, Controls, and Input-Output Budgetsp. 121
Output Pathwaysp. 122
Leachingp. 122
N-Containing Trace Gasesp. 124
Erosionp. 126
Other Pathways of Lossp. 126
Rates and Controls of N and P Lossesp. 128
Input-Output Budgetsp. 133
Budget Calculationsp. 134
Using These Element Budgetsp. 142
Issues and Opportunitiesp. 143
Interactions of Time Scalesp. 143
An Exploratory Modelp. 143
Supply versus Demandp. 144
Plant-Soil-Microbial Feedbacksp. 146
Sources and Sinksp. 148
Inputs and Outputsp. 150
Interactions across Scalesp. 152
The Regulation of Nutrient Inputs and Outputsp. 154
Demand-Independent Pathways of Element Lossp. 155
Implications of Demand--Independent Nutrient Lossesp. 159
Stoichiometry and Flexibilityp. 160
Within-System Element Cyclingp. 162
Inputs and Outputsp. 169
Biological N Fixationp. 173
Differences in Populations, Species, and Diversityp. 177
Biological Differences and Ecosystem Functioningp. 177
Diversity and Ecosystem Functioningp. 184
Three Final Pointsp. 188
Referencesp. 191
Indexp. 219
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691115801
ISBN-10: 069111580X
Series: Princeton Environmental Institute Series
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 232
Published: 26th July 2004
Publisher: Princeton University Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.27 x 15.39  x 1.68
Weight (kg): 0.34