On November 22, 2005, the Simons Centre for Non-Proliferation and Disarmament Research convened a one-day conference on "Nuclear Cooperation with India" to seek new insights into these issues. The conference gathered a diverse group of specialists to discuss the political and technical consequences of the recent initiatives. The presentations and discussion considered the merits of the specific terms of the US-India arrangement, Canadian policy responses, the direct impact on the NPT regime, and the potential broader consequences for non-proliferation efforts worldwide. This volume documents the proceedings of the conference. It includes an introduction, texts of each presentation, a summary of the ensuing discussions, and a concluding essay. The volume also includes supplementary background material and a current bibliography.