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Nitride Semiconductors and Devices : Springer Materials Science - Hadis Morkoc

Nitride Semiconductors and Devices

Springer Materials Science

Hardcover Published: 28th September 1999
ISBN: 9783540640387
Number Of Pages: 489

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A View of the Past, and a Look into the Future by a Pioneer By Jacques I. Pankove This forword will be a brief review of important developments in the early and recent history of gallium nitride, and also a perspective on the current and future evolution of this exciting field. Gallium nitride (GaN) was syn- thesized more than 50 years ago by Johnson et al. [1] in 1932, and also by Juza and Hahn [2] in 1938, who passed ammonia over hot gallium. This method produced small needles and platelets. The purpose of Juza and Hahn was to investiagte the crystal structure and lattice constant of GaN as part of a systematic study of many compounds. Two decades later, Grim- al. [3] in 1959 employed the same technique to produce small cry- meiss et stals of GaN for the purpose of measuring their photoluminescence spectra. Another decade later Maruska and Tietjen [4] in 1969 used a chloride trans- port vapor technique to make a large-area layer of GaN on sapphire. All of the GaN made at that time was very conducting n-type even when not deli- berately doped. The donors were believed to be nitrogen vacancies. Later this model was questioned by Seifert et al. [5] in 1983, and oxygen was pro- as the donor. Oxygen with its 6 valence electrons on a N site (N has 5 posed valence electrons) would be a single donor.

Foreword. A View of the Past, and a Look into the Future by a Pioneer By Jacques I. Pankovep. XV
Introductionp. 1
General Properties of Nitridesp. 8
Crystal Structure of Nitridesp. 8
Gallium Nitridep. 11
Chemical Properties of GaNp. 13
Thermal and Mechanical Properties of GaNp. 14
Aluminum Nitridep. 17
Thermal and Chemical Properties of AlNp. 17
Mechanical Properties of AlNp. 19
Electrical Properties of AlNp. 20
Optical Propertiesof AlNp. 21
Indium Nitridep. 23
Crystal Structureof InNp. 24
Mechanical and Thermal Properties of InNp. 25
Electrical Properties of InNp. 25
Optical Properties of InNp. 26
Ternary and Quaternary Alloysp. 26
Al GaN Alloyp. 27
In GaN Alloyp. 29
In AlN Alloyp. 31
Substrates for Nitride Epitaxyp. 31
A Appendix Fundamental Data for Nitride Systemsp. 39
Electronic Band Structure of Bulk and QW Nitridesp. 45
Band-Structure Calculationsp. 45
Effectof Strainonthe Band Structureof GaNp. 51
kċp Theory and the Quasi-Cubic Modelp. 52
Quasi-Cubic Approximationp. 54
Confined Statesp. 57
Conduction Bandp. 61
Valence Bandp. 63
Exciton Binding Energy in Quantum Wellsp. 66
Polarization Effectsp. 68
A Appendixp. 80
Growth of Nitride Semiconductorsp. 83
Bulk Growthp. 84
Substrates Usedp. 87
Conventional Substratesp. 88
Compliant Substratesp. 88
Van der Waals Substratesp. 89
Substrate Preparationp. 89
Substrate Temperaturep. 94
Epitaxial Relationship to Sapphirep. 95
Growth by Hydride Vapor Phase Epitaxy (HVPE)p. 98
Growth by OMVPE (MOCVD)p. 99
Sourcesp. 100
Buffer Layersp. 102
Lateral Growthp. 109
Growth on Spinel (MgAl2O4)p. 112
Molecular Beam Epitaxyp. 112
MBE Growth Systemsp. 113
Plasma-Enhanced MBEp. 114
Reactive-Ion MBEp. 117
Reactive MBEp. 118
Modeling of the MBE-Like Growthp. 125
Growth on 6H-SiC (0001)p. 127
Growthon ZnOp. 129
Growthon GaNp. 136
Growthofp-Type GaNp. 137
Growthofn-Type InNp. 139
Growthofn-Type Ternaryand Quaternary Alloysp. 139
Growthofp-Type Ternaryand Quaternary Alloysp. 140
Critical Thicknessp. 141
Defects and Dopingp. 149
Dislocationsp. 150
Stacking-Fault Defectsp. 151
Point Defects and Autodopingp. 153
Vacancies, Antisites and Interstitialsp. 154
Role of Impurities and Hydrogenp. 160
Optical Signatureof Defectsin GaNp. 163
Intentional Dopingp. 165
n-Type Dopingwith Silicon, Germanium and Seleniump. 165
p-Type Dopingp. 167
Dopingwith Mgp. 168
Optical Manifestation of Group-II Dopant-Induced Defects in GaNp. 179
Doping with Berylliump. 182
Dopingwith Mercuryp. 182
Dopingwith Carbonp. 183
Dopingwith Zincp. 184
Dopingwith Caiciump. 184
Dopingwith Rare Earthsp. 184
Ion Implantationand Diffusionp. 185
Defect Analysis by Deep-Level Transient Spectroscopyp. 186
Summaryp. 190
Metal Contacts to GaNp. 191
A Primer for Semiconductor-Metal Contactsp. 192
Current Flowin Metal-Semiconductor Junctionsp. 196
The Regime Dominated by Thermionic Emissionp. 197
Thermionic Field-Emission Regimep. 198
Direct Tunneling Regimep. 199
Leakage Currentp. 200
The Case of a Forward-Biasedp-n Junctionp. 200
Resistance of an Ohmic Contactp. 202
Specific Contact Resistivityp. 203
Semiconductor Resistancep. 204
Determinationofthe Contact Resistivityp. 206
Ohmic Contactsto GaNp. 207
Non-Alloyed Ohmic Contactsp. 208
Alloyed Ohmic Contactsp. 209
Multi-Layer Ohmic Contactsp. 209
Structural Analysisp. 213
Observationsp. 215
Determination of Impurity and Carrier Concentrationsp. 216
Impurity Binding Energyp. 216
Conductivity Type: Hot Probeand Hall Measurementsp. 217
Densityof States and Carrier Concentrationp. 219
Electronand Hole Concentrationsp. 223
Temperature Dependenceof the Hole Concentrationp. 224
Temperature Dependenceof the Electron Concentrationp. 227
Multiple Occupancyof the Valence Bandsp. 229
A Appendix Fermi Integralp. 232
Carrier Transportp. 233
Ionized Impurity Scatteringp. 235
Polar-Optical Phonon Scatteringp. 236
Piezoelectric Scatteringp. 239
Acoustic Phonon Scatteringp. 239
Alloy Scatteringp. 242
The Hall Factorp. 248
Other Methods Used for Calculating the Mobility in n-GaNp. 249
Measured vis.a vis.Calculated Mobilities in GaNp. 251
Transport in 2D n-Type GaNp. 257
Transportinp-Type Ga Nand Al GaNp. 258
Carrier Transportin InNp. 260
Carrier Transportin AlNp. 262
Transport in Unintensionally-Doped and High-Resistivity GaNp. 263
Observationp. 266
The p-n Junctionp. 267
Heterojunctionsp. 267
Band Discontinuitiesp. 268
GaN/AlN Heterostructuresp. 270
GaN/In Nand AlN/InNp. 271
Electrostatic Characteristicsofp-n Heterojunctionsp. 275
Current-Voltage Characteristicsonp-n Junctionsp. 278
Generation-Recombination Currentp. 279
Surface Effectsp. 282
Diode Current Under Reverse Biasp. 284
Effectof the Electric Field onthe Generation Currentp. 284
Diffusion Currentp. 285
Diode Current Under Forward Biasp. 287
Calculation and Experimental I-V Characteristics of GaN Basedp-n Juctionsp. 288
Concluding Remarksp. 294
Optical Processes in Nitride Semiconductorsp. 295
Absorption and Emissionp. 296
Band-to-Band Transitionsp. 300
Excitonuc Transitionsp. 302
Optical Transitionsin GaNp. 303
Excitonic Transitions in GaNp. 303
Free Excitonsp. 303
Bound Excitonsp. 317
Exciton Recombination Dynamicsp. 318
High Injection Levelsp. 322
Free-to-Bound Transitionsp. 322
Donor-Acceptor Transitionsp. 323
Defect-Related Transitionsp. 326
Yellow Luminescencep. 326
Group-II Element Related Transitionsp. 329
Optical Properties of Nitride Heterostructuresp. 331
GaN/Al GaN Heterostructuresp. 332
In GaN/Ga Nand In GaN/In GaN Heterostructuresp. 336
Light-Emitting Diodesp. 340
Current-Conduction Mechanism in LED-Like Structuresp. 341
Optical Output Powerp. 344
Losses and Efficiencyp. 345
Visible-Light Emitting Diodesp. 350
Nitride LED Performancep. 352
Onthe Natureof Light Emissionin Nitride-Based LEDsp. 360
Pressure Dependence of Spectrap. 360
Current and Temperature Dependence of Spectrap. 363
I-V Characteristics of Nitride LEDsp. 366
LED Degradationp. 370
Luminescence Conversion and White- Light Generation With Nitride LEDsp. 373
Organic LEDsp. 376
Semiconductor Lasersp. 379
A Primertothe Principlesof Lasersp. 381
Fundamentals of Semiconductor Lasersp. 382
Waveguidingp. 389
Analytical Solution to the Waveguide Problemp. 390
Numerical Solutionof the Waveguide Problemp. 394
Far-Field Patternp. 402
Lossand Thresholdp. 405
Optical Gainp. 406
Gainin Bulk Layersp. 407
Gainin Quantum Wellsp. 410
Coulombic Effectsp. 413
Gain Calculationsfor GaNp. 417
Optical Gainin Bulk GaNp. 418
Gainin GaN Quantum Wellsp. 419
Gain Calculations in Wz GaN QW Without Strainp. 419
Gain Calculations in WZ QW With Strainp. 420
Gain in ZB QW Structures Without Strainp. 423
Gain in ZB QW Structures with Strainp. 424
Pathways Through Excitons and Localized Statesp. 425
Measurement of Gain in Nitridesp. 431
Gain Measurementvia Optical Pumpingp. 431
Gain Measurement via Electrical Injection (Pump)andan Optical Probep. 437
Threshold Currentp. 439
Analysis of Injection Lasers with Simplifying Assumptionsp. 440
Recombination Lifetimep. 442
Quantum Efficiencyp. 448
Gain Spectraof In GaN Injection Lasersp. 450
Observationsp. 456
A Succinct Reviewofthe Laser Evolutionin Nitridesp. 457
Referencesp. 461
Subject Indexp. 485
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540640387
ISBN-10: 354064038X
Series: Springer Materials Science
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 489
Published: 28th September 1999
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 24.18 x 16.56  x 2.44
Weight (kg): 0.85

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