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New Religions in Global Perspective : Religious Change in the Modern World - Peter B. Clarke

New Religions in Global Perspective

Religious Change in the Modern World

Hardcover

Published: 6th January 2006
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Peter B. Clarke's in-depth account explores the innovative character of new religious movements and new forms of spirituality from a global vantage point. Ranging from North America and Europe to Japan, Latin America, South Asia, Africa and the Caribbean, it is the perfect introduction to NRMs such as Falun Gong, Aum Shirikyo, the Brahma Kumaris, the Ikhwan or Muslim Brotherhood, Sufism, the Engaged Buddhist and Engaged Hindi movements, Messianic Judaism and Rastafarianism.


Charting the cultural significance and global impact of NRMs, he discusses the ways in which various religious traditions are shaping, rather than displacing, each other's understanding of notions such as transcendence and faith, good and evil, of the meaning, purpose and function of religion, and of religious belonging. He then examines the responses of governments, churches, the media and general public to new religious movements, as well as the reaction to older, increasingly influential religions, such as Buddhism and Islam, in new geographical and cultural contexts. Taking into account the degree of continuity between old and new religions, each chapter contains not only an account of the rise of the NRMs and new forms of spirituality in a particular region, but also an overview of change in the regions' mainstream religions.

'Peter Clarke provides us with an excellent contemporary theoretical account of the field and a comprehensive source of information on a plethora of religious groups... I strongly recommend it.' - Adam Possamai, University of Western Sydney, Australia

'New Religions in Global Perspective is one of the best books on New Religious Movements (NRMs) since the beginning of the 21st century...Peter Clarke provides us with an excellent contemporary theoretical account of the field and a comprehensive source of information on a plethora of religious groups, and for this reason, I strongly recommend it. This book would be excellent as a textbook on NRMs for undergraduate and postgraduate students. For experts in the field, it offers a clear light on the most current debates in the field and covers so much across the globe, that any scholar wukk certainly find room to learn more.' -Adam Possamai, University of Western Sydney

'Creemos que la presente obra, enciclopedica en su formato, con buena bibliografia anglosajona, puede ser de ayuda para destinarios muy diversos; estudiosos de las religiones actuales, politicos, pastores y sociologos; util, por su sistemizacion y contenido, para estudiantes universitarios que buscan conocer el momento actual del espectro religioso-espiritual del mundo.' Bibliographia Missionaria

Acknowledgementsp. xi
Introductionp. xiii
Global perspective, New Age and society's responsep. 1
New Religious Movements (NRMs): a global perspectivep. 3
Globalization as a new form of religion and/or spiritualityp. 6
The growing demand for spiritualityp. 7
Identifying 'new' religion globallyp. 9
Accounting for NRMs: rapid change or stagnation?p. 16
Conclusionp. 20
References and select bibliographyp. 21
The New Age Movement (NAM): alternative or mainstream?p. 25
Historical overviewp. 27
NAM, the Holistic Health Movement and the Human Potential Movementp. 31
Questioning the personal and social role of the NAMp. 34
Some Buddhist and Christian responses to the NAMp. 35
The NAM and traditional and/or indigenous religions: the Australian casep. 38
Conclusions: the future of the New Agep. 39
References and select bibliographyp. 40
Accounting for hostility to NRMsp. 43
The history of the ACMp. 45
NRMs and violencep. 55
The brainwashing hypothesis and child abuse allegationsp. 57
Conclusionsp. 67
References and select bibliographyp. 67
New religions in the Westp. 71
Europep. 73
Religious change in modern Europe: some general commentsp. 74
A la carte Christianity and the growth of the unchurched but spiritualp. 76
Toward a European Islamp. 79
Islam: new developments and movementsp. 82
Buddhism and Europeanizationp. 87
New Buddhist communities and movementsp. 90
New Hindu and Sikh movementsp. 92
Modern 'secular' Yogap. 94
Neo-Paganismp. 95
Influential thinkers and the new spiritualities: the case of Gurdjieffp. 97
Conclusions: a changing paradigmp. 102
References and select bibliographyp. 103
North Americap. 108
NRMs (c.1820-c.1950)p. 111
Native American New Religionsp. 115
NRMs c.1950 to the present: anxiety in the midst of prosperityp. 116
Ufology and Occultismp. 119
Reclaiming as politically engaged Wicca/Witchcraftp. 122
NRMs and September 11th 2001p. 123
New Christian and Christian-related movements and the expansion of Western interestsp. 124
'Americanized' and other 'new' forms of Buddhismp. 126
Islam and new Islam-derived movementsp. 129
Judaism and new movements derived from Judaismp. 133
Conclusionsp. 136
References and select bibliographyp. 137
Australia, New Zealand and Melanesia (New Guinea)p. 141
Australia: the ending of the 'white only policy' and a new kind of religious diversityp. 142
New Religions from East and South Asiap. 145
Commodificationp. 148
New Zealandp. 150
Maori new religionsp. 154
Melanesia and commodity millenarianismp. 155
Conclusionsp. 159
References and select bibliographyp. 160
New religions: North Africa and the Middle East, and Africa, south of the Saharap. 163
North Africa and the Middle Eastp. 165
Modernization and Islamic exceptionalismp. 167
Islamism, the Muslim Brotherhood and the creation of an Islamic statep. 169
The influence of Sayyid Quth (1906-66)p. 174
The Brotherhood's idea of an Islamic statep. 176
Hizb ut Tahirp. 179
Al-Qaedap. 180
Gush Emunim (Block of the Faithful)p. 183
Conclusionsp. 184
References and select bibliographyp. 184
Africa, south of the Saharap. 186
Colonialism and religious innovationp. 186
AICs in West Africa (c.1890 to the present)p. 188
AICs of South, Central and East Africa (from c.1890)p. 195
Africa's new Charismatic and Evangelical movementsp. 199
Neo-traditional religionsp. 200
New Islam-related movementsp. 201
NRMs of Asian originp. 205
Conclusionsp. 206
References and select bibliographyp. 207
NRMs in South and Central America and the Caribbeanp. 209
South and Central America and the Caribbeanp. 211
Neo-Pentecostal churchesp. 213
Spiritist and esoteric NRMs in Brazil and Argentinap. 215
Amerindian-Catholic spirituality and New Religionsp. 218
African-derived religions: Brazilp. 220
African-derived religions: the Caribbeanp. 224
Japanese NRMs as the route to African rootsp. 230
Other Asian NRMsp. 232
Conclusionsp. 233
References and select bibliographyp. 233
New religions of South, Southeast and East Asiap. 237
South Asia (India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka)p. 239
Neo-Hindu movementsp. 241
Islamic new movements in India and Pakistanp. 256
New Sikh-related movementsp. 263
New Buddhist movementsp. 264
Sri Lanka's 'Protestant Buddhism'p. 266
Conclusionsp. 268
References and select bibliographyp. 269
Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia)p. 271
Thailand's reformed Buddhismp. 272
Vietnam: Engaged Buddhismp. 278
The American/Vietnam War and Engaged Buddhismp. 280
The Cao Dai and Hoa Hao movementsp. 281
Indonesiap. 285
The construction of 'theistic' Buddhism, Confucianism and Hinduismp. 286
Varieties of Islamp. 288
Resurgent Sufism and modernist and neo-modernist Islamp. 290
SUBUDp. 291
Conclusionsp. 293
References and select bibliographyp. 294
East Asia (1): Japanese NRMsp. 296
New religionp. 297
Japanese NRMs and the religious pastp. 298
Goals of the New Religionsp. 301
Accounting for the rise and decline of Japanese NRMsp. 304
Engaged spiritualityp. 306
Japan's Christian NRMsp. 307
Japanese NRMs abroadp. 309
Aum Shinrikyo: the path to violencep. 310
Conclusionsp. 316
References and select bibliographyp. 316
East Asia (2): NRMs in China, Taiwan and Koreap. 319
Governments and religion in Chinap. 320
The religious landscape of China and Taiwanp. 321
New Religions in China and Taiwan: world transformation as self-transformationp. 326
From Yiguandao (Way of Pervading Unity) to Tian Dao (The Way)p. 327
Foguangshanp. 329
Buddhist Compassion Relief (Tzu Chi)p. 331
Falun Gongp. 332
Qigong and Chinese martial arts outside Chinap. 336
Chinese Christian NRMsp. 337
Koreap. 337
Korea's NRMsp. 339
Tonghak/Ch'ondogyop. 339
Unification Church (UC) (T'ongil-gyo)p. 342
Won Buddhismp. 346
Conclusionsp. 348
References and select bibliographyp. 349
Conclusionp. 351
Future trendsp. 353
The distinguishing features of NRMs and of new forms of spiritualityp. 353
The future of NRMs, the new spirituality and/or congregational religionp. 357
References and select bibliographyp. 359
General bibliographyp. 361
Indexp. 365
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780415257473
ISBN-10: 0415257476
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 408
Published: 6th January 2006
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Ltd
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.13 x 16.51  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.75
Edition Number: 1