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Neutron Scattering in Condensed Matter Physics : Series on Neutron Techniques and Applications - Thierry Straessle

Neutron Scattering in Condensed Matter Physics

Series on Neutron Techniques and Applications

Paperback Published: May 2009
ISBN: 9789810248314
Number Of Pages: 301

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Neutron scattering has become a key technique for investigating the properties of materials on an atomic scale. The uniqueness of this method is based on the fact that the wavelength and energy of thermal neutrons ideally match interatomic distances and excitation energies in condensed matter, and thus neutron scattering is able to directly examine the static and dynamic properties of the material. In addition, neutrons carry a magnetic moment, which makes them a unique probe for detecting magnetic phenomena.

In this important book, an introduction to the basic principles and instrumental aspects of neutron scattering is provided, and the most important phenomena and materials properties in condensed matter physics are described and exemplified by typical neutron scattering experiments, with emphasis on explaining how the relevant information can be extracted from the measurements.

Prefacep. v
Introductionp. 1
Why neutron scattering?p. 1
Basic properties of the neutronp. 2
Basic principles of Neutron Scatteringp. 7
Aim of a neutron scattering experimentp. 7
Neutron scattering cross-sectionp. 8
Correlation functionsp. 10
Coherent and incoherent scatteringp. 12
Principle of detailed balancep. 14
Magnetic scatteringp. 15
Polarized neutronsp. 19
Dynamical neutron scatteringp. 21
Further readingp. 23
Instrumentationp. 25
Neutron sourcesp. 25
Historical evolution of neutron sourcesp. 25
Practical requirements for neutron sourcesp. 26
Fission sourcesp. 26
Spallation sourcesp. 27
Moderation of neutronsp. 29
Instrument componentp. 30
Beam tubes and static collimatorsp. 30
Neutron guidesp. 31
Time-of-flight monochromatorsp. 33
Monochromators (and analyzer) crystalsp. 34
Neutron beam filtersp. 37
Spin polarizers (and spin analyzers)p. 38
Guide fields and spin flippersp. 39
Detectorsp. 40
Neutrons instrumentsp. 41
Introductory remarksp. 41
Powder diffractometersp. 42
Single-crystal diffractometersp. 43
Small-angle scattering instrumentsp. 45
Reflectometersp. 46
Time-of-flight spectrometersp. 48
Triple-axis spectrometersp. 50
Backscattering spectrometersp. 51
Spin-echo spectrometersp. 52
Sample environmentp. 54
Temperaturep. 54
Magnetic fieldp. 56
Pressurep. 57
Further readingp. 61
Structure Determinationsp. 63
Cross sectionp. 63
Examples of structure factorsp. 65
Polycrystalline materialsp. 66
Single crystalsp. 69
Rotating crystal methodp. 70
Laue methodp. 70
Extinction and absorptionp. 71
Characterization of residual stressp. 73
Further readingp. 74
Exercisesp. 76
Solutionsp. 79
Lattice Dynamicsp. 85
Cross section for one-phonon scatteringp. 85
Phonon dispersion relations and polarization vectorsp. 89
Linear chain with identical atomsp. 89
Linear chain with two different atomsp. 91
Experimentalp. 95
Incoherent scattering phonon density of statesp. 95
Multi-phonon processes: coherent scatteringp. 98
Further readingp. 98
Exercisep. 98
Solutionsp. 101
Liquids and Amorphous Materialsp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Static structure factorp. 107
Diffusionp. 112
Further readingp. 118
Exercisesp. 119
Solutionsp. 120
Magnetic Structuresp. 123
General cross sectionp. 123
Paramagnetsp. 123
Ferromagnetsp. 124
Antiferromagnetsp. 125
Helical spin structures (magnetic spiral structures)p. 127
Magnetic ordering wavevectorp. 130
Zero-field magnetizationp. 130
Spin densitiesp. 131
Further readingp. 132
Exercisesp. 133
Solutionsp. 134
Magnetic Excitationsp. 137
Magnetic cluster excitationsp. 137
Dimersp. 137
Trimersp. 139
Tetramersp. 142
N-mersp. 143
Spin wavesp. 145
Ferromagnetsp. 145
Antiferromagnetsp. 149
The random-phase approximationp. 151
Solitonsp. 154
Further readingp. 156
Exercisep. 157
Solutionp. 160
Crystal-Field Transitionsp. 163
Elementary concept of crystal fieldsp. 163
Crystal-field interaction of f-election systemp. 166
Neutron cross-sectionp. 169
Interaction of the crystal-field spilt ionsp. 172
Intermultiplet crystal-field transitionsp. 174
Calculation of thermodynamic magnetic propertiesp. 174
Further readingp. 176
Exercisep. 176
Solutionsp. 177
phase Transitionsp. 181
Introductionp. 181
Structural phase transitionsp. 182
Phase transitions in icep. 185
Magnetic Phase transitionsp. 191
Quantum Phase transitionsp. 193
Further readingp. 197
Superconductivityp. 199
Introductionp. 199
The flux-line latticep. 202
Phonon density of statesp. 204
Phonon energies and linewidthsp. 206
Relaxation effects of crystal-field transitionsp. 208
Spin fluctuations in high-temperature superconductorsp. 210
Further readingp. 213
Superfluidityp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Liquid 4Hep. 216
Phase diagramp. 216
Elementary excitationsp. 216
The condensate fractionp. 218
Static structure factorp. 219
Liquid 3Hep. 221
Phase diagramp. 221
Elementary excitationsp. 222
Further readingp. 223
Defects in Solidsp. 225
Introductionp. 225
Short-range order of point defectsp. 226
Macro-defectsp. 230
The triangulation methodp. 232
Resonant and local modesp. 233
Further readingp. 236
Surface and Interfacep. 237
Introductionp. 237
Specular reflectionp. 240
Off-specular reflectionp. 244
Grazing incidence scattering scatteringp. 246
Further readingp. 247
Hydrogen Dynamicsp. 249
Introductionp. 249
Dynamics of the hydrogen bondp. 249
Hydrogen tunnelingp. 255
Further readingp. 259
Exercisep. 260
Solutionp. 261
Dirac ¿-function and Lattice Simsp. 263
Neutron Scattering Lengths and Cross Sectionsp. 265
Paul Spin Operatorsp. 271
Cross Section for Magnetic Neutron Scatteringp. 273
Crystal Lattice and reciporocal Latticep. 277
The 3-j and 6-j Symbolsp. 279
Impulse Approximationp. 281
List of Symbolsp. 285
Bibliographyp. 289
Indexp. 295
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9789810248314
ISBN-10: 9810248318
Series: Series on Neutron Techniques and Applications
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 301
Published: May 2009
Country of Publication: SG
Dimensions (cm): 22.61 x 15.24  x 2.03
Weight (kg): 0.48

Earn 137 Qantas Points
on this Book