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Neanderthals and Modern Humans : New Approaches to Anthropological Archaeology, Vol 1 - Henry

Neanderthals and Modern Humans

New Approaches to Anthropological Archaeology, Vol 1

By: Henry

Hardcover

Published: 1st October 2003
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The volume traces the controversy that revolves around the bio-cultural relationships of Archaic (Neanderthal) and Modern humans at global and regional, Levantine scales. The focus of the book is on understanding the degree to which the behavioral organization of Archaic groups differed from Moderns. To this end, a case study is presented for a 44-70,000 year old, Middle Paleolithic occupation of a Jordanian rockshelter. The research, centering on the spatial analysis of artifacts, hearths and related data, reveals how the Archaic occupants of the shelter structured their activities and placed certain conceptual labels on different parts of the site. The structure of Tor Faraj is compared to site structures defined for modern foragers, in both ethnographic and archaeological contexts, to measure any differences in behavioral organization. The comparisons show very similar structures for Tor Faraj and its modern cohorts. The implications of this finding challenge prevailing views in the emergence of modern human controversy in which Archaic groups are thought to have had inferior cognition and less complex behavioral-social organization than modern foragers. And, it is generally thought that such behaviors only emerged after the appearance of the Upper Paleolithic, dated some 10-20,000 years later than the occupation of Tor Faraj.

This book presents a coherent and convincing case for the demonstration of modern human behavior in a Middle Paleolithic rockshelter. The volume is well-illustrated with black and white line art and photos, and the chapters are data-rich. I conclude by wholeheartedly endorsing this book for all graduate students and professional anthropologists interested in the archaeology of modern human origins. Geoarchaeology, March 2005 a welcome addition to the literature on Middle Paleolithic sites outside the traditional core area of prehistoric research Scholars interested in Levantine prehistory certainly should consult this book not only for its results, but also as a guide for implementing new analytical and methodological procedures in middle Paleolithic research. Paleo Anthropology, June 2005 a major contribution to our understanding of the transition in this critical crossroads region of the world .and excellent book. Journal of Anthropological Research '[T]his is a well-written, well-presented publication of a highly significant research project. It should be obligatory reading to anyone involved in studies of the middle Paleolithic, the transition to the Upper Paleolithic, and the origins of "modern" human behavior.' Joao Zilhao, Journal of Field Archeology, Vol. 31, 2006 'This is the most significant report of a Middle Paleolithic site of this region toappear in many years and it raises the bar considerably in terms of thedepth of analysis and quality of presentation. Not at all just a laundrylist of material recovered from Jordanian site of Tor Faraj, it is instead atightly integrated collection of studies, ranging from site formation tobehavioral interpretation, that builds on the best of current archaeologicalmethod and theory in the context of modern human origins. While aninvaluable resource for all Middle Paleolithic scholars, it also serves as amodel for the entire archaeological community of what modern researchdesign, excavation, analysis, and reporting can be.' Harold L. DibbleProfessor in AnthropologyUniversity of Pennsylvania Museum 'D.O. Henry is undoubtedly one of the most prominent archaeologists currently working in the Near East. In his new book Henry not only reports on his excavations of a desert rockshelter in Jordan, but also skillfully places the scientific results in their proper evolutionary context. This volume is a major addition to the archaeological record of the Neanderthals of western Asia, as well as our knowledge of cave sites in arid areas, which have never been explored prior to Henry's project.' Professor Ofer Bar-YosefPeabody MuseumHarvard University

List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Contributors
Acknowledgements
Introduction
The Emergence of Modern Humans: Issues and Debatesp. 3
The Levant and the Modern Human Debatep. 12
Case Study
A Case Study from Southern Jordan: Tor Farajp. 33
Human Behavior and the Stone Tools from Tor Farajp. 60
Small Lithic Debris Analysisp. 86
Into the Mind of the Maker: Refitting Study and Technological Reconstructionsp. 107
Middle Paleolithic Plant Exploitation: The Microbotanical Evidencep. 156
Formation Processes and Paleosurface Identificationp. 172
Site Structure and Material Patterning in Space on the Tor Faraj Living Floorsp. 198
Summary
Behavioral Organization at Tor Farajp. 237
Alphabetical Listing of Attribute Definitions Used for the Tor Faraj Small Lithic Debris Studyp. 271
Small Lithic Debris Analysis Results Tablesp. 276
Cross-Cultural Data for Hearths in Rocksheltersp. 285
Analysis of Sediments for Zinc and Phosphate lonsp. 288
Referencesp. 296
Indexp. 313
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780826458032
ISBN-10: 0826458033
Series: New Approaches to Anthropological Archaeology, Vol 1
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 338
Published: 1st October 2003
Publisher: Bloomsbury Publishing
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.8  x 2.0
Weight (kg): 0.8