Synthesizing research from a wide variety of sources, this work offers a convenient guide to a clean, safe, inexpensive, non-toxic, non-polluting solvent that performs better than most conventional solvents. Natural Extracts Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide reviews recent development in the technology and its applications to the food, flavor, fragrance, and pharmaceutical industries. It outlines the many advantages the method has over traditional methods like steam distillation, solvent extraction, and molecular distillation and it supports the popular trend toward the use of natural products in these industries.
"very well written and easy to follow. It covers the current and newer areas of production of extracts from a host of natural products for food, pharmaceutical, and medicinal applications. A unique feature of this book is the inclusion of a rather large database, covering both the fundamental and application aspects of many extraction processes and their products. The author has also provided some very useful data on economic comparison of the performance of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction processes with the more conventional contemporary processes practiced by various industries. an excellent source book" - S.S.H. Rizvi, Institute of Food Science, Cornell University, in Food Technology ..." provides essential information for scientists interested in extractions in the laboratory or on an industrial scale, using an environmentally friendly option. The book lays the foundation for the potential investigator in the efficient isolation of naturally occurring compounds." -Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 44, Issue No. 7 (2001) "This interesting book deals with recent developments in the use of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction (SCFE). It provides the reader with a comprehensive picture of this methodology and its applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industriesThe book is comprehensive in its approach and supports the use of SCFE as a non-polluting, environmentally friendly process" - Phytomedicine "Dr. Mukhopadhyay is an expert on process design for SCF extraction operations. Industrial engineers will appreciate her discussion on transport processes such as heat and mass transfer involved in extraction of natural products The remaining 2/3 of the book, having less mathematical information, is written with the general reader in mind. This allows it to be a useful reference for many industries including ours." Terry Gerstein, Society of Cosmetic Chemists, July/August 2001
INTRODUCTION Importance of Nature Cure Naturopathy Natural Extracts CO2 as an SCF Solvent SCFE Process SCFE Applications References Figure Captions - Chapter 1 Figures 1.1 - 1.3 FUNDAMENTALS OF SUPERCRITICAL FLUIDS AND PHASE EQUILIBRIA Process Schemes and Parameters in SCFE Thermodynamics of SCF State Variability of Density with P and T Addition of Cosolvent to SCF Solvent Solubility Behavior in SCF Solvent Solubility Isotherms and Cross Over Phenomena Solubility Isobars Pressure and Temperature Effects Solvent Capacity and Selectivity Cosolvent Effects SCF Phase Equilibrium Behavior Liquid-Fluid Phase Equilibria Solid-Fluid Phase Equilibria Polymer-Fluid Phase Equilibria Thermodynamic Modelling The Equation of State Approach Solid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations Mixing Rules CS and GC Methods Solubility Predictions of Solid from Pure Components Properties Liquid-Fluid Equilibrium Calculations Mixing Rules Regression of Binary Adjustable Parameters Prediction of Multicomponent Data from Binary Interaction Constants Prediction of Phase Boundaries Mixture Critical Point Calculations Multiphase (L-L-V) Calculations Solubility Predictions Using Solvent-Cluster Interaction Model Solubility Calculations from Correlations Selectivity of Natural Molecules from Pure Component Solubilities Thermophysical Properties of CO2 Nomenclature References Figure Captions - Chapter 2 Figures 2.1 - 2.27 (b) FUNDAMENTAL TRANSPORT PROCESES IN SUPERCRITICAL FLUID EXTRACTION Transport Properties of SCFs Viscosity Diffusivity Thermal Conductivity Interfacial Tension Mass Transfer Behavior SCFE From Solid Feed Mechanism of Transport from Solids Stages of Extraction from Different Natural Materials SCFF from Liquid Feed Fractionation of Liquids by SFC Mass Transfer Modelling For SCFE from Solids Process Parameters Mass Transfer Coefficients Effect of Axial Dispersion and Convective Flows Shrinking Core Leaching Model Heat Transfer in SCFs Heat Transfer Coefficients Effects of Free Convective Flow Heat Transfer Coefficient for Two Phase Flow Heat Exchanger Specifications Nomenclature References Figure Captions - Chapter 3 Figures 3.1(a) - 3.16 FLAVOR AND FRAGRANCE EXTRACTS Market Demand Natural Essential Oils Methods of Recovery of Natural Essential Oils Steam Distillation Maceration Enfleurage Cold Expression Extraction with Volatile Organic Solvents Choice of Solvents Purification of Crude Extract Vacuum Distillation Molecular Distillation Liquid-Liquid Fractionation Supercritical CO2 Extraction Commercial Advantage SC CO2 Extracted Floral Fragrance Jasmine Fragrance Rose Fragrance Bitter Orange Flower Fragrance Lavender Inflorescence Fragrance Marigold Fragrance Sandalwood Fragrance Vetiver Fragrance References Figure Captions - Chapter 4 Figures 4.1 - 4.7(b) FRUIT EXTRACTS Importance of Recovery Citrus Oil Recovery During Juice Extraction Flavoring Components in Fruits Stability and Quality CO2 Extraction Processes Deterpenation of Citrus Oil by SC CO2 Dealcoholation of Fruit Juice by SC CO2 Enzyme Inactivation and Sterilization by +SC CO2 References Figure Captions - Chapter 5 Figures 5.1 - 5.6 SPICE EXTRACTS Importance of Recovery Classification of Spices Therapeutic Properties of Spices Spice Constituents Production of Spice Extracts SC CO2 Extraction and Fractionation Celery Seeds Red Chili Paprika Ginger Nutmeg Pepper Vanilla Cardamom Fennel, Caraway and Coriander Garlic Cinnamon Market Trends References Figure Captions - Chapter 6 Figure 6.1 HERBAL EXTRACTS Importance of Recovery Herbal Remedies Recovery Methods Antioxidative and Antimicrobial Constituents Anti-inflammatory Constituents Anti-Cancerous Alkaloids Anti-Carcinogenic Polyphenols Medicinal Constituents of Tea Extract Fat Regulating Agent Therapeutic Oils and Fatty Acids References NATURAL ANTIOXIDANTS Importance of Recovery Classification Botanicals with Antioxidative Activity Tocopherols as Antioxidants Recovery by SC CO2 Spice and Herbal Extracts as Antioxidants Recovery by SC CO2 Plant Leaf Extracts as Antioxidants Flavonoids Recovery of Flavonoids Carotenoids as Antioxidants Recovery of ? Carotene by SC CO2 Solubility of Antioxidants in SC CO2 References Figure Captions - Chapter 8 Figures 8.1 - 8.7 NATURAL FOOD COLORS Carotenoids as Food Colors Recovery of Carotenoids by SC CO2 Grass Orange Peel Turmeric Paprika Red Chili Carrot Marigold Flowers Annatto Other Natural Colors Anthocyanins as Food Colors Classification of Anthocyanins Recovery of Anthocyanins Commercial Anthocyanin-based Food Colors Betacyanins References Figure Captions - Chapter 9 Figures 9.1 - 9.2 PLANT AND ANIMAL LIPIDS Importance of Recovery Recovery Methods Separation of FFA from Vegetable Oil by SC CO2 Fractionation of PUFA from Animal Lipids Refining and Deodorisation of Vegetable Oil Fractionation of Glycerides Extraction of Oil from Oil Bearing Materials Sunflower Oil Corn Germ Oil Soybean Oil Olive Husk Oil Grape Seed Oil Animal Lipids Deoiling of Lecithin by SC CO2 Soya Phospholipids Oat Lecithin Canola Lecithin PC from Deoiled Cottonseed PC from Egg Yolk Dilipidation and Decholesterification of Food Butter Egg Yolk Powder Fish and Meat Muscles References Figure Captions - Chapter 10 Figures 10.1 - 10.12 NATURAL PESTICIDES Importance of Recovery Bioactivity of Neem Neem Based Pesticides Azadirachtin-based Formulations Commercial Production Recovery of Azadirachtin from Neem Kernel Conventional Processes Supercritical CO2 Extraction Pyrethrum Based Pesticides Recovery of Pyrethrins Nicotine Based Pesticides Reovery of Nicotine by SC CO2 References APPENDICES Thermophysical Properties of Carbon Dioxide Definitions of Fatty Acids and Their Compositions in Various Oils Some Statistics on Major Vegetable Oils and Oilseeds INDEX