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Natural Disasters and Sustainable Development : Environmental Science and Engineering - Riccardo Casale

Natural Disasters and Sustainable Development

Environmental Science and Engineering

By: Riccardo Casale (Editor), Claudio Margottini (Editor)

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Published: 5th December 2003
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Natural disasters are a clear example of people living in conflict with the environment. Disasters cause human, social and environmental losses and, sometimes, even threaten geopolitical stability, as in many less developed countries. They are also a problem of global concern, even when damage is local: the mechanisms are often dependent on global meteoro-climatic circulation. Losses frequently affect several  countries, as could be seen in the floods in central Europe in 2002. It is obvious that there is a clear need for a new approach, capable of incorporating the prevention of natural disasters, whilst mitigating strategies within the cycle of sustainable development. There are no thematic disciplines or political boundaries limitating initiatives: the integration of data providers, data users/information providers and information users, in a global and holistic manner, is the desired outcome of the new frontier. This book falls into this new category: multidisciplinary interventions and socio-economic point of views are the basic inputs for a changing science, implementing sustainable development for the benefit of citizens and society. It is comprised of studies and investigations which explain natural processes and modelling, as well as assessing hazards and risks and is rounded of with suggestions for sustainable development. Thus reflecting the best results of research on this topic funded by the European Commission.

Understanding Natural Processes and Modellingp. 1
The Erosion of Coasts and the Atlas of the Italian Beachesp. 3
Upwelling of the Sea over the Past 11.5p. 9
Coastal Mobilityp. 9
Instrumental Data (Satellite and Marigraph)p. 10
Palaeoclimatic Datap. 10
Curves from Coral Reefsp. 14
Modelsp. 14
The Universal Delugep. 15
Conclusionsp. 16
Referencesp. 16
Additional Referencesp. 17
Meteorological Factors Influencing Slope Stabilityp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Methodology and Study Areasp. 20
Correlation Between Meteo-Climatic Factors and Slope Stabilityp. 22
Falls and Topplesp. 22
Slidesp. 25
Spreadsp. 27
Flowsp. 29
Conclusionsp. 33
Acknowledgementsp. 34
Referencesp. 34
Additional Referencesp. 34
Use of Radar Rainfall Estimates for Flood Simulation in Mountainous Basinsp. 37
Introductionp. 37
Correction Procedures for Range-Dependent and Mean-Field Biasesp. 39
Range-Dependent Biasp. 39
Mean-Field Biasp. 41
Data and Case Studiesp. 41
Comparison of Basin-Average Rainfall Estimates Based on Radar and Rain Gauge Measurementsp. 44
Sensitivity of Rainfall-Runoff Transformation to Radar Rainfall Errorsp. 46
Conclusionsp. 50
Acknowledgementsp. 51
Referencesp. 51
Additional Referencesp. 52
FLOODSS: A Flood Operational Decision Support Systemp. 53
p. 53
The Need for a Flood Planning and Management DSSp. 54
Aims and Structure of FLOODSSp. 55
Conclusionsp. 63
Referencesp. 63
A Brief Overview of Hydrological Modellingp. 65
Backgroundp. 65
What is a Hydrological Model?p. 65
Areas of Applicationp. 66
Hydrograph Analysis-Discharge, Stagep. 66
Discharge Modellingp. 67
Hydrodynamic Simulationp. 68
Scale of Modellingp. 69
Characteristics of Typical Applications of Hydrological Modelsp. 70
Designp. 70
Forecastingp. 72
Reconstruction of Historic Eventsp. 73
Scenario Investigationp. 74
Statistical Estimationp. 74
Hydrological Statisticsp. 74
Extreme Value Distributionsp. 75
Fitting Distributions to Datap. 75
Hydrographsp. 77
Joint Probabilityp. 77
The QdF Methodp. 78
Risk Assessmentp. 78
Rainfall-Runoff Modellingp. 80
Unit-Hydrograph Modelsp. 80
Process-Based Modelsp. 83
Flow Routingp. 86
Hydrodynamic Modellingp. 87
Modelling in Practicep. 89
Areas of Difficulty and Future Researchp. 89
Acknowledgementsp. 92
Referencesp. 92
Appendix-Model Application Procedurep. 94
Introductionp. 94
Model Definitionp. 94
Model Construction-Topographic Datap. 96
Model Construction Hydrometric Datap. 98
Model Provingp. 100
Baseline Simulationsp. 102
Assessment of Resultsp. 104
Slope Instabilities and Restauration in the Historical Town of Orvietop. 107
A Brief History of Orvietop. 107
Geomorphological Aspectsp. 108
Failuresp. 109
The Works Necessary to Preserve the City of Orvietop. 110
Restoration of the Slopes and the Ditchesp. 111
Consolidation of the Rockp. 116
Restoration of the Walls and Tidying up of the Rocks Edgesp. 116
Survey and Consolidation of the Cavitiesp. 117
Instrumentation and Geodetical Netp. 119
Hazard and Risk Assessmentp. 125
Heavy Rainfall Hazardsp. 127
Introductionp. 127
Concept and Methodology of Heavy Rainfall Hazardp. 127
The Maximal Annual Daily Rainfallp. 128
Maximal Annual Rains from Rains above a Thresholdp. 128
Results: Return Periods and Trendsp. 129
he Return Periodp. 129
The Trendp. 131
Do Extreme Data Mean Extreme Processes?p. 134
Conclusionp. 137
Acknowledgementsp. 137
Appendixp. 138
Second Method for Determining Heavy Rains (Above a Threshold)p. 138
Snow Avalanchesp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Avalanche Formationp. 143
Avalanche Topographyp. 143
Snow Packp. 145
Weather Conditionsp. 146
Runout Modelsp. 148
Statistical a /&beta-Modelp. 150
Voellmy Block Modelp. 153
PCM Block Modelp. 153
NIS Visco-Elastic Plastic Deformable Body Modelp. 154
Legislation and Avalanche Hazardp. 157
Avalanche Hazard Zoning; Hazard Zoning Principlesp. 158
Mapping Standardp. 158
Types of Mapsp. 159
Zoning Procedurep. 160
GIS as a Tool for Hazard Zoningp. 161
Sustainable Development?p. 162
Referencesp. 162
Additional Referencesp. 163
Land Use Planning in Hazard Mitigation: Intervening in Social and Systemic Vulnerabilities-An Application to Seismic Risk Preventionp. 165
Introductionp. 165
Land Use Planning: A Tool of Risk Prevention Strategiesp. 166
Measuring and Assessing Risk: The Hazard Analysisp. 171
Measuring and Assessing Risk: The Vulnerability Factorp. 173
The Case of Alaskap. 179
Conclusionsp. 181
Acknowledgementsp. 182
Referencesp. 182
Landslide Susceptibility Mapping: A Methodological Approachp. 183
Landslide Phenomenap. 184
Landslide Predictionp. 185
Landslide Hazard and Riskp. 186
Referencesp. 186
Application of an Integrated Method for Landslide Hazard Assessment in the Area of Corvara in Badia (Dolomites, Italy)p. 187
Introductionp. 187
Geomorphological Analysisp. 188
Slope Instability Analysisp. 190
Landslide Susceptibility Mappingp. 193
Landslide Hazard Assessmentp. 195
Conclusionsp. 196
Acknowledgementsp. 197
Referencesp. 197
Tsunami Hazard in Southern Italyp. 199
Introductionp. 199
Tsunami Generation Mechanismp. 200
Tsunami Impact on the Coastsp. 202
Tsunamis in Southern Italyp. 203
Tsunami Cataloguesp. 203
A Statistical Approach to Tsunami Hazardp. 204
Deterministic Approach to Tsunami Hazard: Scenariosp. 205
The 1627 Tsunami in Garganop. 205
The 1693 Tsunami in Eastern Sicilyp. 207
The 1908 Tsunami in the Messina Straitsp. 208
Conclusionsp. 210
Acknowledgementsp. 210
Referencesp. 210
Integrated Investigations on Landslides-The Example of the Super Sauze Earthflowp. 213
Introductionp. 213
Geological Conditions Favourable to Landslidingp. 213
Geological and Geomorphological Features of the Barcelonnette Basinp. 213
The Barcelonnette Basin Landscapep. 215
Landslidesp. 215
The Super Sauze Landslidep. 215
Triggering and Evolutionp. 217
Integrated Methods and Technicsp. 217
Terrestrial Topometryp. 217
GPS Measurementsp. 217
Digital Photogrammetric Analysisp. 220
Geophysical Investigationsp. 220
Geotechnical Investigationp. 224
Hydrological and Hydrogeological Investigationp. 230
Modelling and Hazard Assessmentp. 232
Conclusionp. 235
Acknowledgementsp. 236
Additional Referencesp. 237
Disaster, Communication and Public Informationp. 239
Introductionp. 239
Basic Definitionp. 239
The 'Crisis' as a Social Elementp. 239
The Social System During Emergenciesp. 240
Before the Eventp. 241
The Initial Phases of the Emergencyp. 242
The Central Phase of the Emergency: The Local Community and the Other Actors During the Crisisp. 242
The Recovering Phasep. 244
The Problem of Communication between Scientists and the Populationsp. 244
Ensuring a Role for Information in Disaster Management Plansp. 244
Referencesp. 246
Implementing Sustainable Developmentp. 247
Natural Disasters and Sustainable Development: From Theory to Practice in Italy?p. 249
Introductionp. 249
Problem Identification and State of the Artp. 250
Natural Disasters, Costs and Victims in Italyp. 250
What Scenario is for the Future?p. 252
The Legislative Situationp. 255
Fund Flowp. 258
Sustainability Objectivesp. 258
Related Conditionsp. 258
Objectivesp. 260
Actionp. 260
Aspects Relating to Employmentp. 266
Implementation and Controlp. 267
Development of Regulations and Legislative Tools for Managing Territorial Safetyp. 267
Quality Control of Proposals and Projects and Coherence of Financial Flowsp. 268
Conclusionp. 269
Referencesp. 269
Acknowledgementsp. 269
Additional Referencesp. 270
A Risk Analysis and Sustainability Approach to Natural Disaster Assessment and Mitigation Philosophy in the Worldp. 271
Introductionp. 271
Societal Impacts of Violent Natural Disastersp. 274
Economic Impacts of Violent Natural Disastersp. 278
Why are Natural Disasters Important?p. 280
Philosophy and Keys for Mitigation Strategiesp. 283
Structural and Non-Structural Mitigation Measures: A Rational Approachp. 288
Towards a Technical-Administrative Procedure for Population Disaster Risk Assessmentp. 290
Conclusions and Suggestionsp. 292
Acknowledgementsp. 294
Referencesp. 294
Additional Referencesp. 295
Activities of UNESCO for Natural Disaster Reductionp. 297
Introductionp. 297
Earthquake Hazardsp. 298
Volcanic Hazardsp. 298
Tsunamisp. 298
Hydrometeorological and Other Hazardsp. 299
Educational Buildings and Cultural Monumentsp. 299
Education and Informationp. 300
Post-Disaster Investigationsp. 300
Conclusionp. 301
Reducing the Effect of Natural Hazards on Urban Areasp. 303
Introductionp. 303
Backgroundp. 303
Natural Hazardsp. 303
Effects of Natural Hazardsp. 307
Understanding the Riskp. 311
Monitoring and Datap. 311
Exposure of Infrastructurep. 314
Social Elementsp. 322
Reducing the Riskp. 326
Administrator's Rolep. 326
Increasing Awarenessp. 328
Action for Mitigationp. 329
The Exposure of Anthropogenic Systems to Natural Hazardsp. 339
Introductionp. 339
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540421993
ISBN-10: 3540421998
Series: Environmental Science and Engineering
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 397
Published: 5th December 2003
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.7