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NATO's Secret Armies : Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe - Daniele Ganser

NATO's Secret Armies

Operation GLADIO and Terrorism in Western Europe

Hardcover Published: 22nd December 2004
ISBN: 9780714656076
Number Of Pages: 315

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This fascinating new study shows how the CIA and the British secret service, in collaboration with the military alliance NATO and European military secret services, set up a network of clandestine anti-communist armies in Western Europe after World War II.

These secret soldiers were trained on remote islands in the Mediterranean and in unorthodox warfare centres in England and in the United States by the Green Berets and SAS Special Forces. The network was armed with explosives, machine guns and high-tech communication equipment hidden in underground bunkers and secret arms caches in forests and mountain meadows. In some countries the secret army linked up with right-wing terrorist who in a secret war engaged in political manipulation, harrassement of left wing parties, massacres, coup d'etats and torture.

Codenamed 'Gladio' ('the sword'), the Italian secret army was exposed in 1990 by Italian Prime Minister Giulio Andreotti to the Italian Senate, whereupon the press spoke of The best kept, and most damaging, political-military secret since World War II (Observer, 18. November 1990) and observed that The story seems straight from the pages of a political thriller. (The Times, November 19, 1990). Ever since, so-called 'stay-behind' armies of NATO have also been discovered in France, Spain, Portugal, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxemburg, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Switzerland, Austria, Greece and Turkey. They were internationally coordinated by the Pentagon and NATO and had their last known meeting in the NATO-linked Allied Clandestine Committee (ACC) in Brussels in October 1990.

'Much of this is appearing in English for the first time and it would be hard to overstate its importance.' - Lobster

Forewordp. xi
Acknowledgementsp. xiv
Acronymsp. xviii
Introductionp. 1
A terrorist attack in Italyp. 3
A scandal shocks Western Europep. 15
The silence of NATO, CIA and MI6p. 25
The secret war in Great Britainp. 38
The secret war in the United Statesp. 51
The secret war in Italyp. 63
The secret war in Francep. 84
The secret war in Spainp. 103
The secret war in Portugalp. 114
The secret war in Belgiump. 125
The secret war in the Netherlandsp. 148
The secret war in Luxemburgp. 165
The secret war in Denmarkp. 168
The secret war in Norwayp. 176
The secret war in Germanyp. 189
The secret war in Greecep. 212
The secret war in Turkeyp. 224
Conclusionp. 245
Chronologyp. 250
Notesp. 259
Select bibliographyp. 301
Indexp. 303
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780714656076
ISBN-10: 0714656070
Series: Contemporary Security Studies (Hardcover)
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 315
Published: 22nd December 2004
Publisher: F CASS PUBN
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.77 x 16.2  x 2.39
Weight (kg): 0.73
Edition Number: 1