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National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic -- The Case of the Northern Sea Route : Environment & Policy - Willy Ostreng

National Security and International Environmental Cooperation in the Arctic -- The Case of the Northern Sea Route

Environment & Policy

By: Willy Ostreng (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 30th November 1998
ISBN: 9780792355281
Number Of Pages: 369

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The basic objective of this book is to place the Northern Sea Route, as the largest scale economic endeavour of the North, into the broader picture of contemporary Arctic politics. The book's overall focus is on the issue-specific needs, properties and interactional patterns that currently exist between the two driving forces underlying regional politics: the urge to achieve an adequate level of environmental protection in order to sustain an eco-system of unique fragility, and the need to utilise regional environmental features for the sake of preserving national security. The book is thus a study of national security and international environmental cooperation, both alone and in a variety of conceptual combinations, including environmental security, sustainable security, extended security and cooperative security.

List of Figuresp. xi
List of Tablesp. xiii
Abbreviationsp. xiv
Forewordp. xvii
Introductory Chapter: International Use of the Northern Sea Route: What is the Problem?p. 1
The Case of the NSR: What Makes it an International Challenge?p. 2
The Arctic Bioregion: Its Functioning, Fragility and Vulnerabilityp. 8
Oil Pollution in Arctic Seasp. 10
Political Implicationsp. 13
Civility in Utilizationp. 16
National Security and the Evolving Issues of Arctic Environment and Cooperationp. 21
The Security and Cooperative Order of Cold War Arcticp. 21
Threat Perceptions and Security Behavior in the Cold War Arcticp. 22
The NSR and Arctic Cold War Securityp. 23
Arctic Security in the post Cold War Periodp. 29
The Changing Soviet Conception of Arctic Securityp. 29
The Northern Fleet and the Reconceptualization of Arctic Securityp. 31
The Emerging Russian Security Concept of the 1990s and the NSRp. 33
The Western Concept of Arctic Securityp. 34
The Evolving Pan-Arctic Concept of Environmental Cooperation and its Relevance to Securityp. 39
The Arctic as an International Region?p. 45
Summaryp. 48
Russian Security Policy 1945-96: The Role of the Arctic, the Environment and the NSR, Raphael Vartanov, Alexei Roginko and Vladimir Kolossovp. 53
Evolution of Soviet Security Perceptions, 1945-1991, and Approaches Toward the Arcticp. 55
The Roots of Soviet Security Thinking and the Arcticp. 55
Evolution of Security Priorities over the Post-war Periodp. 57
Dynamic Interrelations among Political, Economic and Environmental Factorsp. 60
The Murmansk Initiatives and the New Political Thinkingp. 64
Arctic Security Thinking Within the Current Political Process in Russiap. 66
A Geopolitical Setting and the Role of the Arctic in the New Russian Statep. 66
Impact of Domestic Political, Socio-economic and Military Factorsp. 68
National Security and the Choice between Democracy and Authoritarianismp. 68
Role of Military Factors in Shaping Security Perceptionsp. 73
The Socio-economic Situation of the Northern Regions and the Role of the Statep. 77
The Problem of the Integrity of Russia and the Arcticp. 81
International Factors of National Security in the Russian Arcticp. 84
Environmental Security Issues in the Russian Arctic in the Context of INSROPp. 89
Environmental Threats Posed by Military and Naval Activitiesp. 89
Environmental Threats Associated with Natural Resources' Developmentp. 98
Conclusionp. 101
Environment and Security in Arctic Waters: A Canadian Perspectivep. 103
Canadian Security Perspectives, 1945-1997p. 104
Cooperative and Common Security as Frameworksp. 113
Securing the Arctic Marine Environmentp. 122
A Way Aheadp. 132
Norwegian Security Policy: The Role of the Arctic, the Environment and the NSRp. 135
Changing Norwegian Perceptions of Threats to National Interestsp. 135
The Basic Elements of Norwegian Security Policy in the Post-World War II Periodp. 137
Geopolitical Realitiesp. 137
The Self-Imposed Security Regimep. 139
The International Svalbard Regimep. 140
Norwegian Political Rules of Conductp. 145
New Times - New Policy?p. 148
The "Geographical Expansion" of Securityp. 148
The Thematic Expansion of Securityp. 149
New Geopolitical Realities?p. 150
Changes in Self-imposed Security Regimep. 155
Changes in the International Svalbard Regime?p. 158
Changes in the Political Rules of Conductp. 160
The Multipolarity of the BEARp. 163
The Extension of the Concept of Securityp. 164
Various Polities in Regional Security Policyp. 165
The Barents Initiative, Extended Security and the NSRp. 169
The New Overall Norwegian Security Posture: A Summing upp. 174
Environment in the U.S. Discourse on Security: The Case of the Missing Arctic Watersp. 179
Tendencies in U.S. security discourse since 1945p. 180
Environment and Security Debate in 1997p. 185
Arctic Waters in U.S. Security Policyp. 192
Conclusionp. 202
Danish Security Policy: The Role of the Arctic, the Environment and Arctic Navigationp. 205
The Basic Elements of Danish and Greenlandic Security Policy in the post World War II Periodp. 207
Greenland's Military-strategic Use and Potentialp. 210
Greenland as a Protective Shieldp. 210
Greenland in the Maritime Strategyp. 212
Greenlandic Security Politicsp. 219
The Decision-making Competence and Structurep. 219
A Greater Greenlandic Say in Foreign- and Security Policyp. 220
The Inuit Traditionp. 221
Polarization of Greenlandic Politicsp. 223
Increasing Pragmatismp. 224
Greenlandic Attitudes to Arctic Shippingp. 225
Greenland's own APPp. 228
Environmental Security and the Danish Realm: Possible Implications for Greenlandp. 232
Conclusionp. 236
The NSR in the Context of Arctic Environmental Cooperation and National Security: Some Concluding Remarksp. 239
Theoretical Concepts, Political Realities and International Cooperationp. 239
The Fit of Words in Northern Politicsp. 241
Environmental Security and Arctic Securityp. 244
Comprehensive and Extended Security and the Arcticp. 247
Security and Cooperation in the Arctic?p. 248
Common Security and the Security Posture of Arctic Statesp. 252
The Environmental and Security Position of the NSRp. 254
The New Pattern of NSR Usagep. 254
The New Pattern of NSR Cooperationp. 255
The New Pattern of NSR Organizationp. 258
The NSR's Capacity to Build a Pan-Arctic Feeling of Communityp. 260
Level of Government - International Relationsp. 260
Level of Regional Government - Transregional Relationsp. 263
Level of Indigenous Government - Transcultural Relationsp. 264
Notesp. 267
Selected Bibliographyp. 323
Indexp. 355
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792355281
ISBN-10: 0792355288
Series: Environment & Policy
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 369
Published: 30th November 1998
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.24
Weight (kg): 0.72

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