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Nanotechnology : Consequences for Human Health and the Environment - R. E. Hester

Nanotechnology

Consequences for Human Health and the Environment

By: R. E. Hester (Editor), R. M. Harrison (Editor), Barry Park (Contribution by), Jamie R. Lead (Contribution by), David M. Mark (Contribution by)

Hardcover Published: 27th June 2007
ISBN: 9780854042166
Number Of Pages: 134

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Nanotechnology can be broadly described as developing or exploiting products at nanometre dimensions (i.e. as having one dimension less than 100 nanometres). Such materials have a larger surface area to volume ratio than conventional materials which provides them with an increased level of reactivity, and consequently, toxicity per unit mass. This book sets the subject into context by first of all describing the current range of products containing nano-materials and then looking at the consequences for the environment and human health relating to the introduction of nanoparticles and nano-tubes.
Nanotechnology: Consequences for Human Health and the Environment discusses some of the more controversial issues associated with the field including: nanoparticles in the environment, occupational exposure, toxicological properties, human health issues and safety.

The book takes a careful look at the hazards posed by nanoparticles and makes a balanced assessment of the benefits and disadvantages of forging ahead with large-scale nanotechnology.Because of the timely and important message it contains, this is a work that I feel should be read by all those who may be contemplating any activity that involves contact with nanoparticles Chemistry World, February 2008, 64 (Dennis Rouvray)

Current and Future Applications of Nanotechnology
Introductionp. 1
Historyp. 1
Definitionsp. 1
Investmentp. 2
Technologyp. 2
Nanomaterialsp. 2
Manufacturing Processesp. 3
Product Characteristicsp. 3
Types of Nanomaterialsp. 4
Carbonp. 4
Inorganic Nanotubesp. 6
Metalsp. 7
Metal Oxidesp. 7
Claysp. 10
Quantum Dotsp. 11
Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopyp. 11
Dendrimersp. 12
Bio Applicationsp. 12
Nanocatalystsp. 12
Nanotechnology Reportsp. 13
Forbes/Wolfe Nanotech Reportsp. 13
Woodrow Wilsonp. 13
Future Opportunitiesp. 14
Nanoroadmapp. 14
SusChemp. 14
Lux Research Market Forecastp. 15
Nanomaterials Companiesp. 15
Futurep. 15
Referencesp. 16
Nanoparticles in the Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments
Introductionp. 19
Overview of Current Knowledgep. 20
Fate and Behaviour in Natural Aquatic Systemsp. 26
Natural and Engineered Nanoparticle Interactionsp. 27
Structural Determination and Analysisp. 29
Interactions with Pollutants, Pathogens and Nutrientsp. 29
Effects on Pollutant and Pathogen Fate and Behaviourp. 29
Issues to be Addressedp. 30
Sources and Sinks of Nanoparticlesp. 30
Free and Fixed Engineered Nanoparticlesp. 31
Nanoparticle Interactions with Naturally Occurring Materialp. 31
Nanoparticles as Pollutantsp. 31
Transport of Nanoparticlesp. 31
Nanoparticles as Vectors of Pollutionp. 32
Conclusionsp. 32
Referencesp. 32
Nanoparticles in the Atmosphere
Introductionp. 35
Sources of Atmospheric Nanoparticlesp. 35
Primary Emissionsp. 35
Secondary Particlesp. 36
Formation of Nanoparticles During Diesel Exhaust Dilutionp. 37
Particle Size Distributionsp. 39
Source Strength of Traffic Particlesp. 40
Emissions from Non-Traffic Sourcesp. 41
Measurement of Nanoparticles in Roadside Airp. 41
Transformation and Transport of Ultrafine Particlesp. 43
Measurements of Particle Number Concentration in the Atmospherep. 44
Chemical Composition of Atmospheric Nanoparticlesp. 45
Indoor/Outdoor Relationships of Nanoparticlesp. 46
Conclusionsp. 47
Referencesp. 48
Occupational Exposure to Nanoparticles and Nanotubes
Introductionp. 50
Scientific Framework for Assessing Exposure to Nanoparticlesp. 51
Terminology and Definitionsp. 51
Routes of Exposurep. 51
Metric to be used for Assessing Exposure to Airborne Nanoparticlesp. 53
Review of Methods for Assessing Exposure to Nanoparticlesp. 55
Generalp. 55
Mass Concentrationp. 56
Number Concentrationp. 61
Surface Area Concentrationsp. 62
Nanoparticle Size Distribution Measurementp. 64
Particle Sampling Techniques for Characterisationp. 68
Do Nanotubes Require Special Techniques?p. 69
Sampling Strategy Issuesp. 70
Review of Reported Measurements of Exposure to Nanoparticlesp. 71
Introductionp. 71
Measurements of Nanoparticle Exposures in Existing Industriesp. 72
Measurements of Nanoparticle Exposures in New Nanotechnology Processesp. 75
Discussionp. 76
Referencesp. 78
Toxicological Properties of Nanoparticles and Nanotubes
Introductionp. 81
Environmental Air Pollution Particlesp. 81
Effects of Environmental Particlesp. 81
Nanoparticles as the Drivers of Environment Particle Effectsp. 82
Could Cardiovascular Effects of PM be Due to CDNP?p. 84
Is the Environmental Nanoparticle Paradigm Applicable to Engineered NPs?p. 86
The Nature of Newer Manufactured Nanoparticlesp. 86
Carbon Black and TiO[subscript 2]p. 86
Nanoparticles and the Brainp. 87
New Engineered NPs and the Cardiovascular Systemp. 87
Carbon Nanotubesp. 87
Fullerenesp. 89
Quantum Dotsp. 90
Other Nanoparticlesp. 90
Conclusionp. 91
Referencesp. 92
Human Effects of Nanoparticle Exposure
The Regulatory Issuesp. 102
Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies per sep. 102
Nanosciences and Nanotechnologies in Context of Dangerous Substances Generallyp. 103
Current Issues and Knowledge Gapsp. 103
Toxicology of Nanoparticlesp. 104
NP Characterisationp. 106
Epidemiologyp. 107
Human Challenge Studiesp. 110
Discussion: Risk Assessment of Engineered NPsp. 111
Referencesp. 113
Nanoparticle Safety - A Perspective from the United States
Introductionp. 118
The US National Nanotechnology Initiativep. 119
Federal Government Activities in Support of "Safe" Nanotechnologyp. 120
Industry and Other Non-government Activities in Support of "Safe" Nanotechnologyp. 124
Looking to the Future - Ensuring the Development of "Safe" Nanotechnologyp. 125
Referencesp. 129
Subject Indexp. 133
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780854042166
ISBN-10: 0854042164
Series: Issues in Environmental Science and Technology
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 134
Published: 27th June 2007
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.6 x 16.64  x 1.42
Weight (kg): 0.39