Multiple Voices: The Word from China.
1.2 Bilinguals and their languages.
1.3 Views about bilinguals.
1.4 Learning a second language.
1.5 Where did bilingualism come from?.
1.6 Linguists: what they know and don?t know.
1.7 Why so many languages?.
1.8 The rationale for many languages today.
1.9 Attitudes about language.
1.10 Linguistics and bilingualism.
1.11 Why bilingualism matters to you.
1.12 Bilingualism: Practical considerations.
1.13 How the book is organized.
1.14 Words and phrases to remember..
2. What?s a Language? What?s a Dialect? What ?Social Work? do they do?.
Multiple voices: the word from italy.
2.2 What counts as a language?.
2.3 Problems with mutual intelligibility.
2.4 Dialects as groupings under a language.
2.5 The written language and dialects.
2.6 Identifying the standard dialect.
2.7 Who speaks a dialect?.
2.8 Summing up.
2.9 Words and phrases to remember..
3. Who is a Bilingual? What Factors Promote Bilingualism?.
Multiple voices: the word from ecuador.
3.2 Who is a bilingual?.
3.3 Defining bilingualism.
3.4 Factors promoting bilingualism.
3.5 Conditions of displacement.
3.6 Summing up.
3.7 Words and phrases to remember..
4. Language Maintenance and Shift.
multiple voices: the word from algerians in france.
4.2 Three useful models of community organization.
4.3 Allocation of varieties.
4.4 Diglossia and domains.
4.5 Maintenance or shift?.
4.6 Representative case studies.
4.7 The younger generation and bilingualism.
4.8 Separating language maintenance from cultural maintenance.
4.9 Summing up.
4.10 Words and phrases to remember..
5. Ideologies and Attitudes.
multiple voices: the word from papua new guinea.
5.2 Language attitudes vs. cultural ideologies.
5.3 Power and the economy of language.
5.4 How languages identify groups.
5.5 Language attitudes.
5.6 Theoretical models and the expression of attitudes.
5.7 Language ideology.
5.8 Summing up.
5.9 Words and phrases to remember..
6. The Social Motivations for Language Use in Interpersonal Interactions.
multiple voices: the word from turks in the netherlands.
6.2 Linguistic varieties as social indices.
6.3 More than meets the ear.
6.4 Language varieties absorb meanings from situations.
6.5 Speakers have their own motivations for choices, too.
6.6 Models to explain conversational choices.
6.7 What accommodation means.
6.8 Markedness Model: another model of social motivations.
6.9 Code choices within a Conversation Analysis approach.
6.10 Summary on explaining bilingual choices.
6.11 Summing up.
6.12 Words and phrases to remember..
7. Inter-Cultural Communication.
multiple voices: the word from indians in england.
7.2 Languages are different and so are cultures.
7.3 Dividing up societies as individualistic or collectivistic.
7.4 High- and low-context messages.
7.5 Five areas of potential differences.
7.6 Is silence golden?.
7.7 Ideas about ?good? conversational routines differ.
7.8 The faces of politeness.
7.9 How to ask for something in different cultures.
7.10 Cross-cultural ideas about power differentials.
7.11 Managing cross-cultural conflicts.
7.12 Summing up.
7.13 Words and phrases to remember..
8. Lexical Borrowing.
multiple voices: the word from kenya.
8.2 Lexical borrowing.
8.3 Cultural and core borrowings.
8.4 Core borrowings.
8.5 Less direct borrowings.
8.6 How borrowed words are integrated.
8.7 Morphological integration.
8.8 Nouns versus other categories.
8.9 What borrowings can tell us.
8.10 Summing up.
8.11 Words and phrases to remember..
9. What Happens to Grammars in Bilingual Contacts.
multiple voices: the word from palestinians in the u.s.
9.3 A model for classic codeswitching.
9.4 How other approaches to codeswitching from the MLF model.
9.5 Singly-occurring words as borrowings or codeswitches?.
9.6 Conclusions on singly-occurring words in codeswitching.
9.7 Larger Embedded Language phrases in Matrix Language frames.
9.8 The 4-M model.
9.9 Convergence and attrition.
9.10 Creation of pidgins and creoles.
9.13 Summing up.
9.14 Words and phrases to remember..
10. Psycholinguistics and Bilingualism.
multiple voices: the word from hungary.
10.2 Themes in psycholinguistics and bilingualism.
10.3 Classifying bilinguals.
10.4 Validity and experimental methodologies.
10.5 The mental lexicon.
10.6 Level of activation.
10.7 Testing for selective access.
10.8 Summary on experiments.
10.9 Models of language production.
10.11 Bilingualism, the brain, and aphasia.
10.12 Summing up.
10.13 Words and phrases to remember..
11. Age of Acquisition and Success with a Second Language.
multiple voices: croatian-australians in australia.
11.2 Introducing child bilingualism.
11.3 Successes in child bilingualism studies.
11.4 But is bilingualism an advantage or a disadvantage?.
11.5 Does early acquisition affect some systems the most?.
11.6 Learning a second language later.
11.7 Age-related issues and the brain.
11.8 Second language acquisition (SLA) as formal instruction.
11.9 Summing up.
11.10 Words and phrases to remember..
12. Language Policies and Globalization.
multiple voices: the word from an american in norway.
12.2 What are the parts of language planning?.
12.3 Status planning.
12.4 Corpus planning.
12.5 Acquisition planning.
12.6 English in the world.
12.7 The European Union and Europe?s new industry: translating.
12.8 Summing up.
12.9 Words and phrases to remember..
multiple voices: the word from haitians in new york usa.
13.1 Some themes to remember.
13.2 Guidelines for understanding speakers in relation to their languages..
Index of Authors.
Index of Languages.
Index of Subjects.