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Multicriteria Environmental Assessment : A Practical Guide - Nolberto Munier

Multicriteria Environmental Assessment

A Practical Guide


Published: 30th April 2004
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The purpose of this book is to analyze, with actual examples, different techniques that have been developed to tackle the complex task of making an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of a project. A project may influence the lives of many people, can change the physical environment temporarily or forever, and creates benefits or losses, not only for the people who promoted it, but also for those not related whatsoever with the project. Thus, its assessment is not only a commercial evaluation of gains and losses, but it goes far beyond that, for it also has to appraise:

-how people's way of life will be affected;

-how significant the alteration produced in the social fabric will be;

-what the result will be of using certain renewable and non-renewable resources;

-how much the expected economic development will cost in terms of loss of resources sustainability;

-how to measure what is not easily measurable: enjoying a sunset, a stroll in a tropical forest, climbing a mountain, etc.; and

-how to integrate the technical and environmental aspects of projects with the desires, wishes and needs of the population.

Even though, in many cases, the different techniques can be used standalone, this procedure appears to be unsatisfactory, because none of them can give a complete answer to our problem. For that reason this book explains each technique separately, but whenever possible, and through examples, links them in order to obtain the maximum benefit from each one.
This book is subtitled A Practical Guide, precisely because it tries to guide the practitioner in this labyrinth of techniques, by suggesting the best tools to use in each case, complementing this with abundant Internet references that provide a fast way to get more information about specific concepts, and facilitating the examination of actual EIA in many different fields.
Audience: This book will help the practitioner, the student, and the public in general on how best to understand and evaluate the effects of new projects on our environment. Worksheets to prepare an EIA are included.

General Backgroundp. 1
General Informationp. 3
The purpose of this bookp. 3
Structurep. 3
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)p. 8
Environmental Impact Statement (EIS)p. 9
Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)p. 11
Environmental and Socioeconomic Impact Assessment (ESIA)p. 12
The necessity of developing an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) for most projectsp. 13
What is economic development?p. 13
What is sustainability?p. 14
The link between economic development and sustainable environmentp. 15
The carrying capacity of the environmentp. 17
Social, economic and environmental interaction in sustainable developmentp. 17
The EIA problemp. 18
The decision-making processp. 20
The EIA reportp. 21
Internet references for Chapter 1p. 23
Projects and Impactsp. 27
Defining the objectives of the studyp. 27
Projects, alternatives or optionsp. 27
Why are there alternatives to a single project?p. 29
Inventory of alternatives or optionsp. 30
Identification of criteria to compare alternativesp. 30
Projects' characteristicsp. 31
Selection of alternativesp. 31
Public opinionp. 31
What are the problems for appraisal?p. 32
The baselinep. 33
Impacts caused by projectsp. 34
Impact definitionp. 34
Effects caused by projectsp. 34
Positive or adversep. 34
Primary, secondary, tertiaryp. 35
Measurable or indeterminatep. 36
Apparent impactsp. 36
Cumulativep. 37
Able to be mitigated or not in a greater or lesser degreep. 37
Residual impactp. 37
Spatially relatedp. 38
Temporal relatedp. 38
Irreversible or reversiblep. 39
Likelihood of the impactsp. 39
Unexpected impactsp. 39
Risk effectsp. 40
Residual effectsp. 41
Population impactp. 41
Interaction between impactsp. 42
Conclusion on impactsp. 42
Internet references for Chapter 2p. 44
Criteriap. 47
Criteria, Attributes or Componentsp. 47
Technical criteriap. 47
Environmental criteriap. 48
Safety criteriap. 49
Social criteriap. 50
Economic criteriap. 50
Construction criteriap. 50
Spatial criteriap. 51
Temporal criteriap. 51
Diverse areas covered by criteriap. 51
Criteria weightp. 52
Criteria thresholdsp. 53
Threshold standardsp. 54
Criteria relationshipsp. 56
Assessment of significancep. 56
Criteria selectionp. 56
Factor Analysis (FA)p. 57
Steps for Environmental Impact Assessmentp. 59
Screeningp. 59
Scopingp. 59
Remediationp. 60
Impact assessmentp. 60
Impact mitigationp. 61
Public participationp. 61
Internet references for Chapter 3p. 64
Elements of Environmental Appraisalp. 67
Information for EIAp. 69
Defining the problemp. 69
Available tools for project appraisalp. 69
Tools for impact identificationp. 70
Checklistsp. 70
Case study - Complex for energy generation and transmissionp. 70
Network analysisp. 76
Case study - High speed train projectp. 77
Leopold's matrixp. 83
Case study - Construction of a water reservoirp. 84
Flow diagramsp. 87
Battelle environmental evaluation systemp. 87
McHarg system - Overlaysp. 87
The Delphi methodp. 90
Dose-response functionsp. 92
Stepped or chained matricesp. 94
Comparison of techniquesp. 95
Internet references for Chapter 4p. 97
Techniques for Environmental Appraisalp. 99
Geographic Information System (GIS)p. 99
Fundamentalsp. 99
Case study--Road construction near archaeological ruinsp. 102
Contingent Valuation (CV)p. 104
Case study--Visitors in an environmentally sensitive sitep. 105
Cost-Benefit Analysis (CBA)p. 106
Hedonic pricingp. 109
Case study--Sewage conversion in a tourist resortp. 111
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA)p. 114
Case study--Selection of exhaust filtering equipmentp. 115
Input-Output analysis (IO)p. 117
Case study--Contamination produced by the automobile manufacturing industryp. 118
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)p. 122
Case study - Construction of a copper concentration plantp. 125
Case study--Determination of contamination produced by a metallurgical mining processp. 127
Multicriteria Analysis (MCA)p. 132
Dollar value appraisalp. 134
Case study--Selection of different urban projectsp. 134
Dollar value with monetary restrictionsp. 139
Environmental damage appraisalp. 139
Case study - Selection of a chemical process to minimize environmental costsp. 140
Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP)p. 145
Case study--Selection of renewable energy sourcesp. 146
Mathematical Programming (MP)p. 156
Case study--Construction of an oil pipelinep. 160
Actual examples of multicriteria analysisp. 167
Selection of waste incinerators (several countries)p. 168
Selection of a sewage system (Norway)p. 168
Options to alleviate traffic congestion (The Netherlands)p. 169
Construction of an overhead power line (South Africa)p. 169
Routing for an oil pipelinep. 170
Construction of an LPG pipeline (India)p. 170
Ranking medium hydro-electric projects (Nepal)p. 171
Policy for energy generation (Canada)p. 171
Risk Analysis (RA)p. 172
Techniques comparisonp. 175
Strategic Environmental Assessmentp. 177
Case study--Policy implementation for paper recyclingp. 177
Internet references for Chapter 5p. 187
EIA in the Urban Scenariop. 195
EIA and Urbanizationp. 197
People's participationp. 197
EIA and the cityp. 198
Case study--Selection of urban intersectionsp. 200
Urban and regional projectsp. 205
The execution of joint projectsp. 206
Sustainable impactp. 207
Case study--Plan of new dwellings for low-income peoplep. 207
Indicatorsp. 209
Indicators selectionp. 212
Measuring the quantity of information provided by indicatorsp. 213
Case study--Selection of urban sustainable indicatorsp. 214
Case study--Selection of urban indicators and projectsp. 224
Case study--Slum upgradingp. 225
Monitoringp. 231
Internet references for Chapter 6p. 232
Mathematical Background to Understand the Fundamentals of Modern Techniques for Project Appraisalp. 235
Introductionp. 237
Regression analysisp. 237
Example--Analysis of an urban transportation corridorp. 238
Correlation analysisp. 243
Matricesp. 244
Linking matrices and correlationp. 245
Linear transformation of a unit circlep. 247
Relationship between the ellipse and the correlation matrixp. 248
Mathematical foundation of the Analytical Hierarchy Processp. 251
Example--Analysis of a project with three criteriap. 251
Foundation of Mathematical Programmingp. 253
Example--Analysis of a project that calls for the construction of an oil pipeline, with four alternatives or optionsp. 253
Graphic examplep. 256
Project: Improvement of an urban highwayp. 256
Mathematical foundation of input/output analysisp. 261
Example - Railway industryp. 261
Statistical notions of Factor Analysisp. 265
The notion of opportunity costp. 266
The notion of shadow pricesp. 267
The notion of sensitivity analysisp. 268
Internet references for Appendixp. 268
Cited references on the Internet by industriesp. 269
Road Map for Environmental Impact Assessmentp. 277
Flowchart and road map for Environmental Impact Assessmentp. 279
Glossaryp. 301
Bibliographyp. 305
Indexp. 309
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781402020896
ISBN-10: 1402020899
Series: Power Electronics and Power Systems
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 311
Published: 30th April 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.6 x 15.57  x 1.83
Weight (kg): 0.45