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Motivation : A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion - Eva Dreikurs Ferguson

Motivation

A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion

Paperback

Published: 1st February 2000
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Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion shows how motivation relates to biological, social, and cognitive issues. A wide range of topics concerning motivation and emotion are considered, including hunger and thirst, circadian and other biological rhythms, fear and anxiety, anger and aggression, achievement, attachment, and love. Goals and incentives are discussed in their application to work, child rearing, and personality. This book reviews an unusual breadth of research and provides the reader with the scientific basis for understanding motivation as a major variable in human and animal life. It also offers insights that can be applied to immediate and practical problems. Various areas are examined in depth, such as the relationships between reward, incentives, and motivation. The discussion of biological rhythms shows that humans and animals are more alert at certain times than others, and these rhythms also affect performance. The topics in the book span the ways in which motivation connects with many aspects of contemporary psychology. Basic issues of design and methodology, details of research procedures, and important aspects of definition and measurement, are discussed throughout the book.
Motivation: A Biosocial and Cognitive Integration of Motivation and Emotion examines the way motivation functions and how it interacts with other important variables: physiological processes; learning, attention, and memory; rewards and stressors; the role of culture as well as species characteristics. The presentation makes clear in what important ways motivation, as a construct, contributes to the scientific understanding of behavior. The book offers advanced undergraduate and graduate students a broad overview of motivation. It also is of value for the professional psychologist who seeks an integrated overview of the classical and contemporary literature in the field of motivation. The book provides information on a broad range of issues and thus can be used also as supplementary reading for courses on cognition and biological as well as social psychology.

Chapter 1 -- Introduction: What is Motivation Historical Considerations Understanding Motivation Helps to Explain Behavior: Will, Drive, Instinct, and Motivation: Motivation is an Intervening Variable: Motivation is Energizing and Directional: Variability and Stability: Summary Chapter 2 -- How Do We Study Motivation? Definitions: How Do You Define Motivation? Defining a Construct: Operational Definitions: The Relationship Between Motivation and Other Variables Motivation Leads to Action: How Do Rewards and Incentives Become Motivation?: Summary Chapter 3 -- Arousal: The Energizing and Intensity Aspect of Motivation The Construct of Arousal Defining and Measuring Arousal: The Reticular Activating System: Physiological Measurements: Arousal Has Many Aspects Situational Specificity and Response Sterotypy: State Versus Trait: Arousal Compared to Arousability: Tense Compared to Energetic Arousal: Arousal -- Performance Relationships Motor Activity and Arousal: Inverted-U Function and the "Yerkes-Dodson Law": Summary Chapter 4 -- Biological Rhythms and Sleep Relationship of Biological Rhythms to Motivation Biological Rhythms Introduction: Biological Rhythms versus Biorhythms: Measuring Circadian Rhythms: Seasonal Rhythms: Nonphotic Factors which Influence the Circadian System: Control of Biological Rhythms The Mammalian Biological Clock: Multiple Oscillators within the Circadian System: Melatonin: Advantages of Biological Timekeeping Effects of Disrupting Biological Rhythms Seasonal Affective Disorder and Phototherapy: "Jet Lag": Sleep Stages of Sleep: Why do we Sleep?: Relationship of Sleep to Circadian Rhythms: Effects of Aging on Biological Rhythms and Sleep Summary Chapter 5 -- Time of Day, Alertness, and Performance Variables of Importance in Addition to Time of Day Time Since Sleeping: Prior Activity: Stimulation and Goals: Are There Several Rhythms? Sleep Compared to Temperature Rhythms: Alertness-Sleepiness: Performance Varies with Alertness and Time of Day Performance and Alertness: Different Tasks Show Different Effects: Time of Day Affects Shift Work and Mood Shift Work: Mood Changes: Personality Characteristics and "Morningness" Versus "Eveningness" Morningness-Eveningness: Extraversion, Impulsiveness, and Morningness-Eveningness: Summary Chapter 6 -- Emotion and Mood: I. Problems of Definition and Measurement How Are Motivation and Emotion Different? Emotion and Motivation: Duration and Congruence: Situational Variables and Goals: Definitions and Classifications of Emotion Historical Considerations: Categories, Classification of Basic Emotions, and Face Muscle Movememt: Intensity and Arousal of Emotions: Emotion and Every-Day-Life Dimensions of Emotions: Person-Environment Relationships: How Can Emotions be Changed?: Emotion, Mood, and Affect Are Emotion, Mood, and Affect Different?: Pleasantness-Unpleasantness: Dimensions Are Different Than Categories: Emotion and Opponent Processes Opponent Process Theory: Test of the Opponent Process Theory: Summary Chapter 7 -- Emotion and Mood: II. Cognition and Information Processing Complexity of Emotion and Cognition Multiple Targets at a Given Moment: Developmental Factors and the Question of Blends Versus Pure Emotions: An Ecological Perspective: Long-Term Versus Short-Term Targets: Emotion and Mood Have A Reciprocal Relationship With Cognition What Kinds of Cognitions Relate to Emotion?: Bower's Studies of Emotion and Mood: Emotion and Information Processing Are Emotion and Cognition One or Two Separate Systems?: Emotion as a Node in an Associative Network: Emotional States Regulate Allocation of Capacity: State-Dependent Effects: Are There Additional Issues?: Approach and Withdrawal Emotion and Cerebral Asymmetry: Visual Recognition of Emotional Stimuli: Summary Chapter 8 -- Hunger and Thirst: Biological and Cultural Processes Biological Processes and the Regulation of Energy in Hunger Problems of Definition: Motivational States vs. Consummatory Responses: Consummatory, Appetite, and Instrumental Responses: Consummatory Responses and Subjective Descriptions: Concepts and Terms: Primary vs. Secondary: Homeostasis, Negative Feedback, and Feedforward Regulation: Short-Term vs Long-Term Regulation: Hunger and Satiety, Onset and Cessation of Eating: The Role of the Central Nervous System: The Role of the Lateral Hypothalamus: The Role of the Ventromedial Hypothalamus: The Role of Caudal Brainstem: Hunger and Satiety, Onset and Cessation of Eating: The Role of Peripheral Sites: The Autonomic Nervous System: Cholecystokinin (CCK): The Role of Glucose, Insulin, and Lipids in Onset and Offset of Eating: Glucose: Insulin: Lipids: Biological Processes in Thirst and Fluid Level Regulation Different Kinds of Thirst and Definitions: Osmoreceptors, Vasopressin, and the Lateral Hypothalamus: Salt Appetite: Drinking, Drinking Offset, and Non-Primary Factors: The Role of Culture and Learning in Hunger and Eating Taste and Appetite: Culture: Learned Aversions: Appetite and Appetizing: Weight Maintenance and Eating Disorders: Cues, Obesity, and Eating Restraint: Anorexia, Bulimia, and Obesity: Disorders and Disease: Is There an Ideal Figure and an Ideal Weight?: Effects of Hunger, Thirst, and Glucose on Responding and Information Processing The Directional Effects of Hunger and Thirst: Sensitivity to Cues: The Interactive Effects of Hunger and Food: Information Processing and Learning in Nonhuman Animals: Human Information Processing: Effects of Sweets and Hunger on Measures of Memory: Sugar Can Enhance Memory Performance: Event-Related Brain Potentials and Memory Performance: Summary Chapter 9 -- Rewards, Incentives, and Goals: Addictive Processes, Extrinsic Incentives, and Intrinsic Motivation General Theoretical Issues In What Ways Has the Effect of Reward Been Studied?: Instrumental and Operant Conditioning: A Brief Historical Overview: Praise as a Verbal Reinforcer: Reward Variables That Affect Learning and Performance: Unlearned and Conditioned Rewards and Motivations: Delay and Magnitude of Reward: Brain Stimulation, Reward Systems, and Drug Abuse Reward Systems: Addiction and Substance Abuse: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Incentives, and Achievement Motivation Incentive and Incentive Motivation: Intrinsic Motivation and External Rewards: Does Intrinsic Motivation Decrease with Extrinsic Rewards?: Additional Perspectives: Incentives, Success and Failure, and the Achievement Motive: Achievement Motivation Theory: McClelland and Atkinson: Expectancy-Value Theory and Success and Failure: Summary Chapter 10 -- Goals and Success-Failure Beliefs Goals, Level of Aspiration, and Level of Expectation The Work of Kurt Lewin and Colleagues: Other Research on Level of Aspiration and Level of Expectation: Individual Differences in Goal Setting Goal Setting and the Achievement Motive: Dweck: Performance Goals Versus Learning Goals: Other Goal-Expectancy Approaches: Beliefs Regarding Success (Versus Failure) and Reinforcement Belief About Success and Failure on Tasks and Self-Efficacy: Locus of Control of Reinforcement: Goals and Performance Attainment Locke and Goal Setting Theory: Research by Others on Goal Setting and Goal Striving: Summary Chapter 11 -- Aggression and Anger: Attribution Mastery Power, Competition Attribution and Achievement Weine and Attribution Theory: Other Research Approaches: Anger Anger in Everyday Life: Measurement of Anger: Hostility, Anger, and Type A Personality Hostility: Type A Personality and Coronary Heart Disease: Summary Chapter 12 -- Aggression, Power, and Mastery What is Meant By Aggression? The Motivational Aspects of Aggression: The Frustration-Aggression Hypothesis: Aggression in Animals Is There an Aggression Drive?: Conspecific Aggression: Situational Variables: Interspecies Aggressive Behavior: Brain Areas and Hormones Brain Areas: Hormones: Self-Interest vs. Collective Interest: Competition and Human Aggression Self-Interest Versus Collective Interest: Sports and Games: Culture: Human Aggression: Power, Arousal, and Learning Power: Arousal and Learning: Machiavellianism, Mastery, and Assertiveness Machiavellianism: Mastery: Assertiveness: Summary Chapter 13 -- Fear and Anxiety General Considerations Early Experimental Work Escape and Avoidance Conditioning Studies of Fear and Anxiety: Punishment, Fear, and Anxiety: Learned Helplessness and Flooding: Contemporary Research in Fear Learning Psychobiological Findings: Human Conditioning Studies: Social Variables Involved in Fear Learning: Anxiety, Individual Differences, Cognition, and Coping State and Trait Anxiety: Cognition and Coping: Summary Chapter 14 -- Sex, Gender, and Love Hormonal Effects, Sexual Dimorphism, and Sexual Motivation Gonadal Steroid Hormones: Social Animals: Prairie Voles and Spotted Hyenas: Human Studies: Gender The Importance of Gender: Gender Identity, Gender Schema, and Gender Differences: Love Parent-Child Love: Peer Relationships and Friendship: Romantic Love and Adult Love Relationships: Summary

ISBN: 9780195068665
ISBN-10: 0195068661
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 416
Published: 1st February 2000
Publisher: Oxford University Press Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 19.05  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 0.89