In this important student text, first published in 1991, Professor Freedman provides an exhaustive account of Soviet policy in the Middle East from the invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979 to withdrawal from the country ten years later. Following an introductory chapter which views the period from World War II to the invasion, Robert Freedman examines policy motives and outcomes in a broadly chronological approach. Specific and detailed attention is paid to Soviet policy towards the Iran Iraq war, the Arab-Israeli conflict and intra-Arab policies. Throughout, Professor Freedman compares the policies of Gorbachev with those of his predecessors - Brezhnev, Chernenko and Andropov. He concludes that continuity, not change, has characterised recent Soviet policy towards the Middle East. Moscow and the Middle East will provide students of Soviet foreign policy, the Middle East and international relations with an invaluable textbook. It will also prove an essential reference source for government officials and policy analysts."