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More is Different : Fifty Years of Condensed Matter Physics - Nai-Phuan Ong

More is Different

Fifty Years of Condensed Matter Physics

By: Nai-Phuan Ong (Editor), Ravin Bhatt (Editor)

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Published: 1st April 2001
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This book presents articles written by leading experts surveying several major subfields in Condensed Matter Physics and related sciences. The articles are based on invited talks presented at a recent conference honoring Nobel laureate Philip W. Anderson of Princeton University, who coined the phrase "More is different" while formulating his contention that all fields of physics, indeed all of science, involve equally fundamental insights. The articles introduce and survey current research in areas that have been close to Anderson's interests. Together, they illustrate both the deep impact that Anderson has had in this multifaceted field during the past half century and the progress spawned by his insights. The contributors cover numerous topics under the umbrellas of superconductivity, superfluidity, magnetism, electron localization, strongly interacting electronic systems, heavy fermions, and disorder and frustration in glass and spin-glass systems. They also describe interdisciplinary areas such as the science of olfaction and color vision, the screening of macroions in electrolytes, scaling and renormalization in cosmology, forest fires and the spread of measles, and the investigation of "NP-complete" problems in computer science.

The articles are authored by Philip W. Anderson, Per Bak and Kan Chen, G. Baskaran, Juan Carlos Campuzano, Paul Chaikin, John Hopfield, Bernhard Keimer, Scott Kirkpatrick and Bart Selman, Gabriel Kotliar, Patrick Lee, Yoshiteru Maeno, Marc Mezard, Douglas Osheroff et al., H. R. Ott, L. Pietronero et al., T. V. Ramakrishnan, A. Ramirez, Myriam Sarachik, T. Senthil and Matthew P. A. Fisher, B. I. Shklovskii et al., and F. Steglich et al.

"This book fills a need for an accessible introduction to some problems at the forefront of condensed-matter physics research... The editors have done an excellent job of assembling articles that offer a concrete and comprehensive demonstration of [Anderson's] original thesis."--Stephen Julian, Times Higher Education Supplement "I would recommend the book to condensed matter theoretical physicists who are interested in the broad range of complexity theory and exploring outside their usual bailiwick. Some elementary particle physicists would also have their horizons widened by reading the book."--Charlie Ironside, Contemporary Physics

Prefacep. xi
1950 to Y2Kp. xv
More is Different--One More Timep. 1
Localization Yesterday, Today, Tomorrowp. 9
Absence of Diffusion in Random Latticesp. 9
Experimental Backgroundp. 9
The Localization Ideap. 10
Related Developmentsp. 11
Consequences of Localizationp. 12
Localization as a General Feature of Disorderp. 13
Scaling and Weak Localizationp. 14
Thouless Conductancep. 14
Scaling Theoryp. 15
Weak Localizationp. 16
Theoretical Developmentsp. 18
Mesoscopic Systems and Phenomenap. 21
Other Excitationsp. 21
Summaryp. 22
Tomorrowp. 23
Glass and Spin Glassp. 23
Superconductor-Insulator Transitionp. 23
Metal-Insulator Transition in 2Dp. 24
Decoherence in Disordered Conductorsp. 25
Localization in Manganitesp. 27
Metal-Insulator Transitions in Disordered Systemsp. 33
Critical Exponent Puzzle in 3Dp. 33
Novel Phenomena in Dilute 2D Systems: New Physics or Old?p. 42
The Nature of Superfluid [superscript 3]He in Silica Aerogelp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Results of the First Studyp. 51
Results of the Second Studyp. 54
Comparison with Previous Resultsp. 59
Conclusionsp. 61
RVB Description of High-T[subscript c] Superconductorsp. 63
Introductionp. 63
Review of RVB Theoryp. 64
Projected Wavefunctions and Staggered Current Fluctuationsp. 68
Conclusionp. 73
Angle-Resolved Photoemission Results in Cupratesp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Nature of the Electronic Statesp. 76
Excitations at the Fermi Surfacep. 77
Quasiparticles in the Superconducting Statep. 80
New Energy Scales in the Superconducting Statep. 82
Spin Excitations in Copper Oxide Superconductorsp. 91
Introductionp. 91
Neutron Spectroscopy Results in Cupratesp. 92
Stripe Formation in La[subscript 2 - x]Sr[subscript x]CuO[subscript 4]p. 94
Magnetic Resonance Peak in Cupratesp. 95
Origin of the Resonance Peakp. 97
Conclusionp. 100
Anderson's Theory of High-T[subscript c] Superconductivityp. 103
Introductionp. 103
The RVB Theory of 1987p. 104
Three Apects of Anderson's 1987 Mechanismp. 110
Some Comments on Anderson's Solutionp. 112
Appendixp. 113
Quantum Confinement and Cuprate Criticalityp. 121
Introductionp. 121
Experimentsp. 122
Novel Excitationsp. 122
The Z[subscript 2] Gauge Theoryp. 123
Phase Diagramp. 123
Chargon Condensation and Superconductivityp. 127
Quantum Confinement Critical Pointp. 128
Experimental Implicationsp. 130
Comparison with Anderson's RVB Statep. 132
Spin-Triplet Superconductivity of Sr[subscript 2]RuO[subscript 4]p. 135
Introductionp. 135
Quasi-2D Fermi Liquid Propertiesp. 137
Spin-Triplet Superconductivityp. 138
Anisotropy of the Superconducting Gapp. 141
H - T Phase Diagramp. 143
Concluding Remarksp. 146
Triplet Quasi-One-Dimensional Superconductorsp. 151
Introductionp. 151
Early Results on P-Wave Pairingp. 153
Dimensionality Reduction in a Magnetic Fieldp. 154
Interlayer Decouplingp. 156
Recent Experiments on Spin Pairingp. 161
Conclusionsp. 169
Magnetic Moments in Metalsp. 173
Introductionp. 173
Heavy (Slow) Electronsp. 177
Coexistence of magnetic order and heavy electronsp. 180
Non-Fermi-liquid features of heavy-electron metalsp. 182
Superconductivity of heavy electron metalsp. 183
Conclusionsp. 186
Superconductivity and Magnetism in Heavy-Fermionsp. 191
Introductionp. 192
Magnetic-exciton mediated superconductivityp. 194
Antiferromagnetism and Superconductivityp. 197
Heavy-Fermion Metals near a Magnetic Instabilityp. 203
Outlookp. 206
The Mott Transitionp. 211
Introductionp. 211
Model Hamiltonianp. 212
Mean Field Theoryp. 214
Spectral Functions of Strongly Correlated Statesp. 219
Anomalous Resistivity and Spectral Weightp. 222
The Mott Transition as a Bifurcationp. 226
Extensions of Dynamical Mean Field Methodsp. 230
Conclusionsp. 232
First Steps in Glass Theoryp. 237
Introductionp. 237
Mathematicsp. 237
Experimentsp. 238
A mean-field spin-glass analogyp. 240
A lesson from mean-field: many valleysp. 243
Beyond the analogy: first-principles computationp. 246
Conclusionp. 251
Geometrical Frustration and Marginal Constraintp. 255
Introductionp. 255
Geometrical Frustrationp. 256
Ordinary water icep. 259
Spin ice in Pyrochloresp. 260
Kagome-like systemsp. 262
Geometrical frustration in non-magnetic systemsp. 264
Olfaction and color vision: More is simplerp. 269
Color visionp. 270
Olfactionp. 271
Comparative problems of vision and olfactionp. 272
The logarithmic distribution of odorant binding constantsp. 272
Odorant modelingp. 273
Olfactory tasks in a least-squared error algorithmp. 275
An approach through large-np. 276
On the large number n of cell types: More is simplerp. 280
Separation of two unknown odorsp. 281
More is simplerp. 284
Screening and giant charge inversion in electrolytesp. 285
Introductionp. 285
Screening of charged surface by spherical Z-ionsp. 292
Long charged rods as Z-ionsp. 297
Forest Fires and Luminous Matter in the Universep. 301
Introductionp. 302
The Forest Fire Modelp. 303
Scale-Dependent Dimension of Luminous Matterp. 306
Forest fires and Measlesp. 310
Complexity in Cosmologyp. 313
Introductionp. 313
Fractal Structures and Self Organizationp. 314
Reconstructing the Puzzlep. 319
Scaling Properties and Data Analysisp. 321
Implications of fractal structure up to [lambda subscript 0]p. 324
Fractal Cosmology in an Open Universep. 326
Statistical Physics and Computational Complexityp. 331
Introductionp. 331
Satisfiability and Hard-Problem Instancesp. 332
Connections to Statistical Physicsp. 336
A closer look at the phase transitionp. 337
Mixtures of 2-SAT and 3-SAT problemsp. 339
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691088662
ISBN-10: 0691088667
Series: Princeton Series in Physics
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 368
Published: 1st April 2001
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.86 x 15.24  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.52