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Monopulse Principles and Techniques - S.M. Sherman

Monopulse Principles and Techniques

Hardcover

Published: 1st December 1984
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Prefacep. xu
Introductionp. 1
Review of Radar Principlesp. 1
Tracking Radars and the Evolution of Monopulsep. 3
A "Baseline" Monopulse Radarp. 8
Advantages and Disadvantages of Monopulsep. 17
Non-Radar Uses of Monopulsep. 19
Referencesp. 19
Terminology, Definitions, and Notationp. 23
The Meaning of Monopulsep. 24
Apertures and Illumination Functionsp. 27
Patterns, Lobes, and Beamsp. 28
Sum and Difference Patternsp. 29
Sum and Difference Notationp. 32
"Error" Signalsp. 32
Complex Signal Representation and Complex Envelopesp. 33
Elevation, Azimuth, and Traversep. 38
Referencesp. 45
The Monopulse Output as a Complex Ratiop. 47
General Principlesp. 47
Relative Phase of Difference and Sump. 49
Some Useful Relationships and Formulasp. 50
Referencesp. 52
Components Used in Monopulsep. 53
Antenna Mountsp. 53
Antennasp. 55
Lens Antennasp. 57
Single-Reflector Antennasp. 58
Cassegrain (Double-Reflector) Antennasp. 60
Feedsp. 62
Devices for Forming Sums and Differencesp. 66
Hybrid Junctionsp. 67
Magic-T Junctionp. 67
Hybrid Ring ("Rat-Race") Junctionp. 69
Directional Couplersp. 70
Comparatorsp. 73
Other Methods of Obtaining Monopulse Sum (or Reference) and Differencesp. 75
Graphical Symbolsp. 77
Proof of Quadrature Phase Relationships in Directional Couplersp. 80
Receiversp. 84
Referencesp. 85
Amplitude-Comparison and Phase-Comparison Classificationp. 89
Descriptionsp. 91
Phase Fronts, Phase Centers, and Related Conceptsp. 94
Transmitting Antennasp. 95
Receiving Antennasp. 98
Targetsp. 98
An Example: Phase Fronts of a Two-Element Sourcep. 99
Simplification at Large Distancesp. 101
Phase Centers of Array Antennasp. 103
Phase Centers of Reflector Antennasp. 106
Definitions and Further Discussionp. 107
Distinction Based on Relative Phase of Sum and Differencep. 108
Distinction Based on Relative Phase of Illumination Functionsp. 112
Distinction Based on Sum and Difference Patternsp. 113
Apparent Conversion of One Class to the Otherp. 114
Distinction Based on Other Criteriap. 116
Application to Array Antennasp. 117
An Example of Theoretical Equivalencep. 118
Summary of Amplitude-Comparison and Phase-Comparison Classificationp. 124
Referencesp. 126
Optimum Feeds for Amplitude-Comparison Monopulsep. 129
Nature of Optimizationp. 129
f/D Ratiop. 131
Effect of Squint Angle in a Four-Horn Feedp. 132
Optimization of Squint Anglep. 135
Comparison With Measured Patternsp. 137
Beacon Operationp. 140
Comparison of Beam Squint Angle and Feed Offset Anglep. 141
Effect of Squint Angle on Normalized Difference Patternp. 141
Other Feed Configurationsp. 143
Summary of Feed Optimizationp. 146
Referencesp. 147
Monopulse Processorsp. 151
Functions and Properties of Monopulse Processorsp. 152
Range Gatingp. 155
Angular Coordinates for Monopulse Calibrationp. 156
Exact Monopulse Processorp. 157
Processor Using Phases and Linear Amplitudes of s and dp. 159
Processor Using I and Qp. 161
Processor Using Phases and Logarithmic Amplitudes of s and dp. 163
Processor Using "Dot-Product" Detector with AGCp. 165
An Approximate "Dot-Product" Detectorp. 168
Noncoherent Processor Using Sum and Difference of [upsilon][subscript 1] and [upsilon][subscript 2] p. 172
Processor Using
Processor Using log [upsilon][subscript 1] and log [upsilon][subscript 2] p. 177
Processor Using s [plus or minus] jdp. 181
Two-Channel Monopulse Using s + d and s - dp. 186
Phase-Amplitude Monopulsep. 190
Single-Channel Monopulsep. 192
Conopulsep. 194
Summary of Monopulse Processorsp. 196
Referencesp. 199
Response to Unresolved Targetsp. 201
Review of Monopulse Response to a Point Targetp. 204
The Meaning of Unresolved Targetsp. 205
Superposition as an Approximationp. 206
The Two-Target Problemp. 207
The Complex Indicated Anglep. 210
Physical Interpretationp. 215
Measurement of the Imaginary Part (Quadrature-Phase Component)p. 216
Effect of Local-Oscillator Frequencyp. 218
Detection of Presence of Unresolved Targetsp. 218
Mean and Variance of Indicated Anglep. 219
Weighted Mean of Indicated Anglep. 223
Possibility of Determining Angles of Unresolved Targetsp. 224
Information Derivable From Real Partp. 231
Removal of Initial Assumptionsp. 232
Extensions of Monopulse Techniques and Fundamental Limitationsp. 234
Closed-Loop Trackingp. 236
More Than Two Targetsp. 237
Non-Independent Targetsp. 238
Referencesp. 239
Multipathp. 243
Flat-Earth Specular Multipath Modelp. 245
Effect on Detectionp. 248
Effect on Closed-Loop Elevation Trackingp. 249
Types of Multipath Remediesp. 254
Beam Pattern Designp. 254
Range or Doppler Resolutionp. 255
Smoothing and Averagingp. 259
"Low-E" Modesp. 259
Offset-Null Trackingp. 262
Elevation Patterns Having a Symmetrical Ratiop. 263
Double-Null Trackerp. 267
Use of the Complex Indicated Anglep. 269
Independent-Target Methodsp. 278
Referencesp. 280
Monopulse in Array Antennasp. 283
Principles of Operationp. 283
Array Coordinatesp. 285
Arrays With Space Feedsp. 286
Arrays With Constrained Feedsp. 288
Classification as Amplitude-Comparison or Phase-Comparisonp. 291
Special Types of Arraysp. 294
Referencesp. 295
Error Due to Noisep. 297
A Useful Approximate Formulap. 298
Analytical Model of Noise Errorp. 299
Bias in Monopulse Ratiop. 302
Exact Solution for Probability Density Function of d/sp. 305
First-Order Approximation to Standard Deviation of d/sp. 307
Higher-Order Approximation to Standard Deviation of d/sp. 311
Conversion From Monopulse-Ratio Error to Angle Errorp. 313
Effects of Other Conditionsp. 316
"Inexact" Monopulse Processorsp. 316
Closed-Loop versus Open-Loop Operationp. 317
Multiple-Pulse Estimatesp. 317
Fluctuating Targetsp. 318
Summary of Formulas and Practical Considerationsp. 322
Referencesp. 326
Special Topicsp. 329
Difference and Sum Patterns Having a Ratio Proportional to Anglep. 329
General Propertiesp. 329
Applications and Implementationp. 330
Derivation of Equationsp. 331
Characteristics of the Patterns and Illumination Functionsp. 332
Computation of Patterns at Indeterminate Pointsp. 335
Other Pattern Pairs Having a Constant Monopulse Slopep. 336
Extension to Electronically Steerable Arraysp. 338
The Diagonal Difference Signalp. 339
Units of Angle and Sine Spacep. 343
Comparison With Rhodes' Terminology and Classificationp. 345
Referencesp. 348
List of Symbolsp. 349
Indexp. 359
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890061374
ISBN-10: 0890061378
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 384
Published: 1st December 1984
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.5
Weight (kg): 0.76