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Molecular Politics : Developing American and British Regulatory Policy for Genetic Engineering, 1972-82 - Susan Wright

Molecular Politics

Developing American and British Regulatory Policy for Genetic Engineering, 1972-82

Paperback

Published: 1st January 1994
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The promise of genetic engineering in the early 1970s to profoundly reshape the living world activated a variety of social interests in its future promotion and control. With public safety, gene patents, and the future of genetic research at stake, a wide range of interest groups competed for control over this powerful new technology.
In this comparative study of the development of regulatory policy for genetic engineering in the United States and the United Kingdom, Susan Wright analyzes government responses to the struggles among corporations, scientists, universities, trade unions, and public interest groups over regulating this new field. Drawing on archival materials, government records, and interviews with industry executives, politicians, scientists, trade unionists, and others on both sides of the Atlantic, "Molecular Politics" provides a comprehensive account of a crucial set of policy decisions and explores their implications for the political economy of science.
By combining methods from political science and the history of science, Wright advances a provocative interpretation of the evolution of genetic engineering policy and makes a major contribution to science and public policy studies.

List of Illustrations
Preface
Acknowledgments
Introduction: Exploring the Boundary between Politics and Science
Social Interests in Promoting and Controlling Science and Technology
Expansion of Government Support for Science, 1945 to the Late 1960s: The United States
Expansion of Government Support for Science, 1945 to the Late 1960s: The United Kingdom
Reassessing Science and Technology, 1965-1975
Deregulation and Selective Growth: 1970s and 1980s
The Shaping of American and British Science Policy
The Social Transformation of Recombinant DNA Technology, 1972-1982
Anticipations of Genetic Engineering, 1952-1970
The First Gene-Splicing Experiments, 1969-1973
Visions of a Commercial Future, 1974-1976
Genetic Engineering Enters the Business Arena, 1976-1979
The "Cloning Gold Rush," 1979-1982
A New Commercial Ethos
A Transformation of Interest
The Emergence and Definition of the Genetic Engineering Issue, 1972-1975
Social Interests in Genetic Engineering
Precedents
Emergence of the Recombinant DNA Issue, 1973-1974
Initiating Recombinant DNA Policy in the United States and the United Kingdom, 1972-1976
The Asilomar Conference, 24-27 February 1975
The Asilomar Legacy
Initiating Government Controls in the United States and the United Kingdom, 1975-1976
The Politics of the NIH Guidelines
Forming the NIH Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee
Developing the NIH Guidelines, 1975-1976
The Hearing before the Director's Advisory Committee, February 1976
Promulgating the 1976 NIH Guidelines: Industry and the Public Enter the Policy Debate
The Politics of Genetic Engineering in the United Kingdom
The Williams Committee and the Formation of British Policy
Forming the Genetic Manipulation Advisory Group
The American and British Policy Paradigms: Variations on the Asilomar Legacy
Defusing the Controversy: The Politics of Risk Assessment
The Spread of the Recombinant DNA Controversy
The Hazard Problem: A Case Study in the Closure of a Technical Controversy
The Meetings at Bethesda, Falmouth, and Ascot
Further Sources of "New Evidence"
The Politics of Risk Assessment
Dissemination/Legitimation
Derailing Legislation, 1977-1978
The Politics of Government Control of Recombinant DNA Technology
Biomedical Research as an "Affected Industry"
The Rise and Fall of Recombinant DNA Legislation
The Political Impact of the Legislative Defeat
Revising the National Institutes of Health Controls, 1977-1978
The Social and Political Setting
Revisions Proposed, 1977
The Director's Advisory Committee Meeting, December 1977
The Position of Private Industry, December 1977
Cloning Viral DNA: The Original Problem Reassessed
Making the Changes: Initiating a Policy Reversal
Revisions Released, December 1978
Operating the Genetic Manipulation Advisory Group, 1977-1978
The Social and Political Setting
The Politics of GMAG
Implementing the Williams Proposals, 1977
Developing the Brenner Scheme, 1977-1978
Dismantling the National Institutes of Health Controls: From Prevention to Crisis Intervention, 1979
The Social and Political Setting
Industry, Academe, and the Politics of the NIH Controls
The Status of the Hazards Debate
The Wye Meeting
The New Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee
The Rowe-Campbell Proposal: The First Move toward Dismantling the NIH Controls
A Turn in Discourse and Policy
Dismantling the National Institutes of Health Controls but Preserving Quasi-regulation, 1980
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780226910666
ISBN-10: 0226910660
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 616
Published: 1st January 1994
Publisher: The University of Chicago Press
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.6 x 15.1  x 3.33
Weight (kg): 0.83