Modern Trends in Physics Research MTPR-08 was the third of the International Conference series held biannually by the Physics Department in Faculty of Science of Cairo University.The objectives of the conference are to develop greater understanding of physics research and its applications to promote new industries; to innovate knowledge about recent breakthroughs in physics, both the fundamental and technological aspects; to implement of international cooperation in new trends in physics research and to improve the performance of the physics research facilities in Egypt. This proceeding highlights the latest results in the fields of astrophysics, atomic, molecular, condensed matter, lasers, nuclear and particle physics. The peer refereed papers collected in this volume, were written by international experts in these fields. The keynote lecture, "Overview on the Era of the Exploration of the Planets and Planetary Systems," delivered by Professor Jay M Pasachoff of Williams College - Hopkins Observatory was featured in the proceedings. As 2008 was the 50th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik, which began the Space Age, this volume is a unique collection of keynote, plenary and invited presentations covering fields of astrophysics, atomic physics, condensed matter physics as well as nanotechnology, molecular physics and laser physics. This volume will serve as a useful reference for scientists in modern physics and technology of the 21st century.