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Modern Astrometry : Astronomy and Astrophysics Library - Jean Kovalevsky

Modern Astrometry

Astronomy and Astrophysics Library

Hardcover Published: 22nd January 2002
ISBN: 9783540423805
Number Of Pages: 376

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The book is an introduction to practical astrometry, dealing with the determination of positions, motions, distances and dimensions of celestial bodies ranging from quasars to artificial satellites. The main part is devoted to the description of instruments and observing techniques, and also includes the basic properties of optical instruments and a detailed description of the atmospheric effects on observations. A brief summary of the main phenomena in positional astronomy and of data treatment is given. Although classical astrometric methods are described, emphasis is put on new, more precise techniques such as CCD, optical and radio interferometry, space astrometry, etc. For this 2nd edition, the release of the Hipparcos and Tycho catalogs, the rise in CCD astrometry and the adoption of a new celestial reference frame by the IAU led to a significant modification of the text. And, especially, the outlook for astrometry has been completely rewritten.

Presentation of Astrometryp. 1
Astrometry in Astronomyp. 1
Goals of Astrometryp. 2
Extragalactic Objectsp. 3
Starsp. 3
Objects in the Solar Systemp. 5
Earth-Moon Systemp. 6
Conclusionp. 7
Astrometric Techniquesp. 8
Small-Field Astrometryp. 8
Semi-global Astrometryp. 9
Distance Measurementsp. 9
Other Techniquesp. 9
Ground-Based or Space Astrometry?p. 10
Image Formationp. 11
Basic Principlesp. 11
Propagation of a Light Rayp. 12
The Fermat Principlep. 12
Propagation of a Monochromatic Light Wavep. 13
Superposition Principlep. 15
The Huygens Principlep. 15
Diffractionp. 15
Propagation of a Limited Plane Wavep. 16
Diffraction by a Circular Aperturep. 18
Point Spread Function of a Circular Aperturep. 19
Resolving Powerp. 20
Coherenceof Lightp. 21
Bandwidthp. 21
Coherence Timeand Lengthp. 23
Instrumental Defectsp. 24
Conventional Imagep. 24
Defocusp. 26
Spherical Aberrationp. 26
Comap. 27
Astigmatismand Field Curvaturep. 28
Distortionp. 29
Chromatic Aberrationp. 30
Diffraction Chromatismp. 31
Atmospheric Effects on Image Formationp. 33
Monochromatic Atmospheric Refractionp. 33
Approximate Theoryof Atmospheric Refractionp. 33
Spherical Atmosphere Approximationp. 34
Laplace Formulap. 36
Normal Refractionp. 38
Temperatureand Pressure Dependencep. 38
Differential Refractionp. 39
Chromatic Refractionp. 40
Chromatic Refraction Correctionp. 40
Application to Star Observationsp. 40
Empirical Correctionp. 41
Simplified Empirical Correctionp. 43
Refractionin Distancep. 44
Distance Measurementsin Optical Wavelengthsp. 44
Refraction of Radio Wavesp. 45
Heterogeneityofthe Atmospherep. 48
Structureof theAtmospherep. 48
Effects of Turbulencep. 50
Statistical Properties of a Turbulent Atmospherep. 51
Wave Propagation in the Atmospherep. 52
Seeingp. 53
Instantaneous Imagep. 54
Resolving Powerof Telescopesp. 56
Adaptive Opticsp. 58
Reduction of Observationsp. 61
Reference Systems and Framesp. 61
Ideal Reference Systemp. 62
Reference Systemp. 63
Conventional Reference Systemp. 63
Conventional Reference Framesp. 64
Changeof Reference Coordinatesp. 65
Applicationto Local Coordinatesp. 66
Relationwiththe Celestial Reference Framep. 68
New Intermediary Systemp. 70
Satellite Astrometryp. 71
Geometrical Effectsp. 71
Field-to-Focus Transformationp. 71
Annual Parallaxp. 74
Other Parallactic Correctionsp. 75
Proper Motionsp. 76
Optical Effectsp. 77
Aberrationp. 77
Relativistic Light Deflectionp. 79
Relativistic Light-Time Delayp. 80
Doppler Shiftp. 80
Reduction of Observationsp. 81
Positionof the Problemp. 82
Modellingp. 83
Calibrationp. 84
Estimation of Parametersp. 84
Notion of Uncertaintyp. 84
Evaluation of the Uncertaintyp. 86
Method of Least Squaresp. 87
Variance and Covariances in Least Squaresp. 89
Small-Field Astrometryp. 91
Photographic Astrometryp. 91
Telescopesfor Small-Field Astrometryp. 92
Propertiesof Photographic Platesp. 95
Image of a Starp. 99
Photographic Plate Measurementsp. 101
Determinationof Image Positionsp. 102
Plate Reductionp. 103
Star Cataloguesp. 107
Photoelectricityin Astrometryp. 109
Photomultipliersp. 109
CCD Receiversp. 110
CCD Calibrationp. 112
CCD Astrometric Observationsp. 113
CCD Scan Modep. 114
Grid-Modulation Astrometryp. 117
Grid-Modulation Theoryp. 117
Reduction of a Grid-Modulated Signalp. 118
Multichannel Astrometric Photometerp. 119
Astrometry with the Hubble Space Telescopep. 121
Description of the HSTp. 122
Degradation of the HST Opticsp. 122
Description of the Fine Guidance Sensorsp. 124
Reduction of FGS Data in Transfer-Function Modep. 127
Reduction of FGS Data in Astrometric Modep. 129
Astrometric Use of the WF/PCp. 131
Radial Velocitiesp. 132
Spectroscopyp. 133
Determination of Radial Velocities: CORAVELp. 133
Objective Prismp. 135
Meridian Circlesp. 139
Measurementof Large Anglesp. 139
Measuring Anglesbya Rotationp. 139
Materialised Representationof Anglesp. 140
The Meridian Circlep. 142
Principle of a Meridian Circlep. 142
Descriptionofthe Meridian Circlep. 144
Determinationof Celestial Coordinatesp. 144
Right Ascensionsp. 145
Collimationp. 146
Inclinationofthe Rotation Axisp. 147
Azimuth of the Rotation Axisp. 148
Calibrationofthe Instrumental Constantsp. 149
Bessel's Formulap. 150
Determinationof Declinationsp. 151
Geometric Correctionsfor Declinationsp. 151
Flexureofthe Tubep. 152
Errorsin Refractionp. 152
Summaryof Correctionsin Declinationp. 153
Micrometersp. 154
Rotating Mask Micrometerp. 154
Oscillating Grid Micrometerp. 156
Use of an Image Dissectorp. 161
CCD Micrometerp. 162
CCD Telescopesp. 163
Horizontal Meridian Circlesp. 163
Pulkovo Horizontal Meridian Circlep. 164
Axial Meridian Circlep. 165
Reductionof Meridian Observationsp. 166
Relative Observationsp. 166
Global Reductionp. 167
Precisionsof Observationsp. 169
Equal Altitude Instrumentsp. 171
Principle of Astrolabesp. 171
Geometryofthe Observationp. 172
Curvatureofthe Parallelp. 173
Description of an Astrolabep. 174
Principleofthe Danjon Prism Astrolabep. 175
Principle of a Full Pupil Astrolabep. 176
Description of a Full Pupil Astrolabep. 177
The Mark Astrolabep. 180
Instrumental Parametersp. 181
Methodof Equal Altitudesp. 182
Fundamental Formulap. 183
Observational Proceduresp. 184
Determinationof Instrumental Parametersp. 185
Determinationof Star Positionsp. 186
Astrolabe Star Cataloguesp. 186
Solar Astrolabep. 187
Principle of a Solar Astrolabep. 187
Description of the Multiprism Solar Astrolabep. 189
Reduction of Observationsp. 190
Variable Prism Solar Astrolabep. 192
The Photographic Zenith Tubep. 193
Hipparcosp. 197
Hipparcos Missionp. 197
General Principleof Hipparcosp. 198
Description of the Satellitep. 198
Input Cataloguep. 201
Nominal Scanning Lawp. 203
Attitude Controlp. 203
Observing Strategyp. 204
Operation of the Satellitep. 205
Data Reductionp. 206
Photon Count Treatmentp. 206
Single-Slit Responsep. 206
Transit Time on the Star-Mapperp. 208
Grid-to-Field Transformationp. 209
Reference Great Circlesp. 210
Attitude Determinationp. 212
Representationofthe Attitudep. 213
Main Grid Photon Countsp. 215
Main Grid Coordinatesp. 216
Caseof Doubleand Multiple Starsp. 218
Reductionona Great Circlep. 219
Geometryofthe Reductionp. 219
Equations of Conditionp. 220
Design Matrixand Solutionp. 221
Astrometric Parameter Determinationp. 223
Basic Equationsp. 223
Sphere Reconstitutionp. 225
Astrometric Parameter Determinationp. 227
Iterationsand Resultsfor Single Starsp. 227
Special Tasksp. 229
Doubleand Multiple Starsp. 229
Hipparcos Photometryp. 231
Solar System Objectsp. 232
Link to the Extragalactic Reference Framep. 233
Hipparcos Final Cataloguep. 235
Mergingof theCataloguesp. 235
Contentsofthe Hipparcos Cataloguep. 236
Tychop. 238
Principle of Tychop. 238
Detection of Starsp. 238
Star Identificationp. 239
Equations forthe Astrometric Parametersp. 240
Astrometric Parameter Determinationp. 241
Tycho Cataloguep. 242
Tycho-2Cataloguep. 243
Identification of Transitsp. 243
Estimation of Stellar Positionsp. 243
Tycho-2 Cataloguep. 245
Very Small Field Astrometryp. 247
Stellar Amplitude Interferometryp. 247
Interference Fringesp. 247
Michelson Interferometryp. 249
Fundamental Equation of Stellar Interferometryp. 251
Descriptionof Interferometersp. 254
Double Star Observationp. 259
Interferometryof Extended Sourcesp. 261
Resolving Power of an Interferometerp. 265
Other Optical Interferometersp. 265
Speckle Interferometryp. 267
Reduction bythe Autocorrelation Methodp. 267
Reduction in a Fourier Spacep. 268
Operationsp. 269
Occultationsbythe Moonp. 270
Diffraction by a Half-Planep. 270
Application to Lunar Occultationsp. 272
Observation of Occultationsp. 273
Reduction of Observationsp. 274
Precisions Achievedp. 276
Phase Interferometryp. 277
Optical Phase Interferometryp. 277
General Theoryp. 277
Reduction of Observationsp. 279
Refraction Correction in the Mark III Interferometerp. 280
Astrometry with the NPOIp. 282
Astrometric Precisionp. 283
Radio Interferometryp. 284
Radio Telescopesp. 284
Interferometryin Radio Wavesp. 286
Very Long Baseline Interferometryp. 288
VLBI Data Reductionp. 290
Observation of Stars by VLBIp. 292
Space VLBIp. 293
Timing Techniquesp. 295
Chronometryp. 295
Oscillatorsp. 295
Quartz Oscillatorsp. 297
Stimulated Emissionsp. 299
Caesium Atomic Frequency Standardsp. 301
Atomic Clocksp. 305
Atomic Time Scalesp. 307
Lasersp. 309
The Laser Effectp. 309
Implementation for Telemetryp. 311
Laser Rangingp. 311
Lunar Laser Ranging Equipmentp. 313
Photon Efficiency of Lunar Lasersp. 315
Return Recognitionand Data Reductionp. 317
Satellite Laser Rangingp. 319
Global Positioning Systemp. 320
Principleof the Systemp. 321
Description of the GPSp. 321
Measurements with GPS Receiversp. 322
Extensionsp. 324
Planetary Radarsp. 325
Radar Ranging Measurementsp. 325
Application to Planetsp. 327
Ranging to Asteroidsp. 328
Pulsar Timingp. 329
Timing Pulsesp. 330
Propagation Time of Pulsar Signalsp. 332
Interpretationof theObservationsp. 332
Astrometric Resultsp. 334
Future of Astrometryp. 337
Achievements of Present Astrometryp. 337
Extragalactic Objectsp. 337
Starsp. 338
Objectsin the Solar Systemp. 339
Need for Better Astrometryp. 341
Extragalactic Objectsp. 343
Starsp. 344
The Galaxyp. 346
Space Global Astrometry Projectsp. 347
DIVAp. 348
FAMEp. 349
GAIAp. 350
Space Interferometryp. 352
SIMp. 352
Space VLBIp. 353
Astrometry from the Moon?p. 353
Prospects of Ground-Based Astrometryp. 354
CCD Astrometryp. 354
Very Small Field Astrometryp. 355
Role of Ground-Based Astrometryp. 355
As a Conclusionp. 356
Referencesp. 359
Indexp. 371
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540423805
ISBN-10: 354042380X
Series: Astronomy and Astrophysics Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 376
Published: 22nd January 2002
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.61
Edition Number: 2
Edition Type: Revised