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mm-Wave Silicon Technology : 60 GHz and Beyond - Ali M. Niknejad

mm-Wave Silicon Technology

60 GHz and Beyond

By: Ali M. Niknejad (Editor), Hossein Hashemi (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 1st February 2008
ISBN: 9780387765587
Number Of Pages: 302

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This book compiles and presents the research results from the past 5 years in mm-wave Silicon circuits. This area has received a lot of interest from the research community including several university and research groups who have demonstrated record high frequency performance using standard silicon based technology such as digital CMOS and SiGe HBTs. Since many previous expensive mm-wave systems based on III-V technology can now be replaced with silicon, mm-wave based mass market consumer products have been developed. In particular high speed data and auto motive radar are two such applications.

This book covers device modeling, circuit building blocks, phased array systems, and antennas and packaging. It focuses on the techniques that uniquely take advantage of the scale and integration offered by silicon based technologies.

Introduction to mm-Wave Silicon Devices, Circuits, and Systemsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Why mm-Waves?p. 3
The Birth of Silicon mm-Wavep. 5
Why CMOS?p. 8
True Cost of Silicon mm-Wavep. 10
Communication in the 60 GHz Bandp. 12
Beam Formingp. 13
Unique mm-Wave Applicationsp. 17
mm-Wave Spectrump. 17
Automotive Radarp. 18
mm-Wave Imaging for Medical Applicationsp. 22
Collaborative Distributed MIMOp. 23
Overview of Bookp. 24
Referencesp. 24
Silicon Technologies to Address mm-Wave Solutionsp. 25
Why Silicon?p. 25
Performancep. 26
Cost, Integration [3]p. 27
Manufacturing Capacityp. 27
Modern SiGe and CMOS Technologyp. 28
Lithographyp. 28
Low-K Dielectrics and Copper Wiringp. 30
Mobility and Strain Engineeringp. 30
Metal Gates & High-K Dielectricsp. 32
Active Devices on Recent Bulk and SOI Technologiesp. 32
Bipolar Devicesp. 33
CMOS devicesp. 34
SOI CMOS devicesp. 41
Current Density Scaling for CMOS and Bipolar Devicesp. 46
Comparison Between State-of-the-Art HBT and CMOS Devicesp. 46
Impact of the Back-End of Line on mm-Wave Designp. 49
Conclusionp. 55
Acknowledgementsp. 55
Referencesp. 56
Design and Modeling of Active and Passive Devicesp. 59
Passive Devicesp. 59
Transmission Linesp. 59
Inductorsp. 70
Capacitorsp. 72
Transformersp. 75
Resonatorsp. 77
Active Devicesp. 79
Modelingp. 79
Active Device Designp. 80
Small-Signal Modelp. 89
Large-Signal Modelp. 90
FET Noise Modelp. 97
Conclusionp. 105
Referencesp. 107
Amplifiers and Mixersp. 109
60 GHz Low-Noise Amplifiers: What's Different?p. 109
Transistors Closer to Cutoffp. 109
Small Wavelengthsp. 110
Parasitics at 60 GHzp. 111
Low-Noise Amplifier Design Methodologyp. 111
Input Match Optimization for Noise and Powerp. 112
Transistor Noise Parametersp. 113
Common-Base vs. Common-Emitterp. 115
Low-Noise Amplifier Examplesp. 117
Bipolar LNA (v1), Common-Base Inputp. 117
Bipolar LNA (v2), Common-Emitter Inputp. 121
CMOS Common Source Amplifiersp. 122
CMOS Common Gate Amplifiersp. 126
Differential Pair Amplifiersp. 127
Multi-Stage Amplifier Designp. 129
A Two-Stage 30 GHz Amplifierp. 135
Mixers and Frequency Translationp. 137
Single Transistor Mixersp. 137
Dual Gate Mixersp. 141
Gilbert Cell Mixersp. 144
Examples of Integrated Front-Endsp. 147
CMOS 130nm 60 GHz Front-Endp. 147
SiGe Transceiver Chipsetp. 150
Conclusionp. 155
Referencesp. 156
Voltage-Controlled Oscillators and Frequency Dividersp. 159
Considerations of VCOsp. 159
Cross-Coupled Oscillatorsp. 162
Colpitts Oscillatorp. 169
Other Topologiesp. 173
mm-Wave Oscillatorsp. 174
Push-Push Oscillatorsp. 176
Distributed Oscillatorsp. 177
Considerations of Dividersp. 178
Static Dividersp. 180
Regenerative (Miller) Dividersp. 183
Injection-Locked Dividersp. 187
Case Studyp. 190
52-GHz LO Signal Generatorp. 191
60-GHz PLL in 0.15-[mu]m GaAsp. 192
A 75-GHz PLL in 90-nm CMOSp. 195
Referencesp. 199
Power Amplifiers at 60GHz and Beyondp. 201
Motivation and Challengesp. 201
Passive Componentsp. 202
Substrate-Shielded Coplanar Waveguide Structurep. 202
Characterization of the Substrate-Shielded CPW Structurep. 204
Conductor-Backed Coplanar Waveguide as the Transmission Line Structurep. 207
Wirebond and Pad Parasitic Effectsp. 209
Power Transistorsp. 209
Single-Transistor Power Gain and Stabilityp. 210
Stability of the Cascode Pairp. 212
Relationship of Breakdown Voltage and Cut-off Frequencyp. 214
Power Combining Techniquesp. 215
Basic Principlep. 215
Distributed Active Transformerp. 216
Electrical Funnelp. 220
Circuit Implementationp. 228
Case Studiesp. 229
A 77GHz Amplifier for Automotive RADAR Applicationp. 230
A Broadband Amplifier at 85GHzp. 233
Summaryp. 238
Referencesp. 240
Integrated Beamforming Arraysp. 243
Introductionp. 243
What is a Phased Array?p. 245
Case Study: A 60GHz WPAN Link Budgetp. 248
Phased Arrays versus Timed Arraysp. 249
Conventional Phased Array Architecturesp. 253
RF Phase-shiftingp. 254
LO Phase-shiftingp. 263
Digital Arraysp. 269
Comparative View of the Conventional Architecturesp. 269
The VPRO-PLL Phased Array Architecturep. 271
VPRO Conceptp. 271
Transmit Modep. 272
Receive Modep. 273
The Effect of Mismatch in Phased Arraysp. 277
Beam-pointing Errorp. 278
Sidelobe Rejection Ratiop. 280
Implications on Array Packagingp. 281
Array Calibrationp. 282
Quantization Error in Phased Arraysp. 283
Multi-Beam Antenna Arraysp. 285
Antenna Arrays and Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) Transceiversp. 290
Concluding Remarksp. 291
Referencesp. 293
Indexp. 297
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387765587
ISBN-10: 0387765581
Series: Integrated Circuits and Systems
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 302
Published: 1st February 2008
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 0.66