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Mineral Processing in Developing Countries - United Nations

Mineral Processing in Developing Countries

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Conferenee on Industrialization, made the This study ex amines the faetors which affeet the loeation of mineral proeessing in developing following points: eountries. These ean be divided into two broad "National industrialization policies should eategories. The first of these eneompasses stress the objeetive of inereasing the extern al eeonomic and teehnieal elements affeeting the autonomy of the developing regions and countries, 1 basic vi ability of a projeet. These include eapital, with special attention to the promotion of skilled labour, raw materials, eomplementary exports ...(and) also seek to inerease the value inputs, energy, eeonomies of seale, teehnological added to raw materials being proeessed and ehange, growth in demand, proximity to export exported. markets and transport eosts. The seeond eonsists In the light of the foregoing, it is proposed that of struetural elements including sourees of finanee national industrialization policies should: (a) prp- and teehnology, trade and investment and mote integrated industrialization based on the taxation policies.

1 Mineral Processing in Developing Countries - Advantages and Disadvantages.- 1.1 The Present Situation.- 1.2 Benefits to be Gained from Local Processing.- 1.2.1 Resource based industrialization.- 1.2.2 Reducing dependence.- 1.2.3 Development of national capacity.- 1.2.4 Transfer-price manipulation.- 1.2.5 Economic rents.- 1.2.6 Access to capital.- 1.3 Barriers to Local Processing of Minerals.- 1.3.1 Tariffs and other trade limitations.- 1.3.2 Non-economic factors.- 1.3.3 Marketing problems.- 1.3.4 Effects of technology.- 1.3.5 Economies of scale.- 1.4 Economic Analysis of Processing Projects.- 1.4.1 Capital costs.- 1.4.2 Transport costs.- 1.4.3 Environmental costs.- 1.4.4 Energy costs.- 1.4.5 Complementary inputs.- 1.4.6 Labour costs.- 1.4.7 Infrastructure.- 1.4.8 Externalities.- 1.4.9 New vs. expansion projects.- 1.4.10 Concluding remark.- 2 Bauxite, Alumina and Aluminium.- 2.1 The Present Situation.- 2.1.1 Bauxite reserves.- 2.1.2 Bauxite production.- 2.1.3 Alumina production.- 2.1.4 Aluminium production.- 2.1.5 Semi-fabrication.- 2.1.6 Demand for aluminium Internal demand in developing countries World demand.- 2.2 Processing Technology.- 2.2.1 Alumina production.- Alkaline processes.- Pedersen process.- Acid leaching.- Combined acid and salt leaching processes.- 2.2.2 Aluminium production.- Carbothermal reduction.- Use of other reductants.- Purification processes.- Other electrolytic processes.- 2.3 The Cost of Processing.- 2.3.1 Alumina production.- Capital costs.- Operating costs.- Revenue.- 2.3.2 Aluminium production.- Capital costs.- Operating costs.- Revenue.- 2.4 Energy Use.- 2.5 Availability of Aluminium Technology.- 3 COPPER.- 3.1 The Present Situation.- 3.1.1 Copper reserves.- 3.1.2 Copper ore and concentrate production.- 3.1.3 Smelting and refining of copper.- 3.1.4 Semi-fabrication.- 3.1.5 Demand for copper.- 3.2 Copper Processing Technology.- 3.2.1 Pyrometallurgy.- Reverberatory furnace smelting.- Electric furnace smelting.- Flash furnaces.- Continuous smelting.- 3.2.2 Hydrometallurgy.- CLEAR process.- Sherritt-Cominco process.- Anaconda Arbiter process.- Cyprus copper process.- 3.2.3 Comparison of different processes.- 3.3 Economics of Copper Processing.- 3.3.1 Capital costs.- 3.3.2 Operating costs.- 3.3.3 Concentrate sales vs. building a smelter.- 3.4 Copper Rod Production.- 3.5 Energy Use in Copper Processing.- 4 Iron and Steel.- 4.1 The Present Situation.- 4.1.1 Iron ore reserves.- 4.1.2 Iron ore production.- 4.1.3 Agglomeration.- 4.1.4 Pig iron and steel production.- 4.1.5 Demand for steel.- Internal demand in developing countries.- World demand.- 4.2 Iron and Steel Technology.- 4.2.1 Direct reduction steel-making.- 4.2.2 Conventional steel production.- 4.3 Steel Processing Costs.- 4.3.1 Capital costs.- 4.3.2 Operating costs.- 4.3.3 Revenue.- 4.3.4 Economic factors.- 4.4 Energy Use in Iron and Steel.- 5 Economic Factors Affecting the Location of Processing in Developing Countries.- 5.1 Capital Requirements.- 5.2 Sources of Finance.- 5.3 Labour Requirements, Labour Intensity, Labour Share in Total Costs.- 5.4 Raw Materials Requirements.- 5.5 Transport Costs.- 5.6 By-products.- 5.7 Energy Requirements and Availability.- Notes.

ISBN: 9780860105008
ISBN-10: 0860105008
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 60
Publisher: Kluwer Academic Publishers Group
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.61 x 18.9  x 0.36
Weight (kg): 0.14