We have reached the double conclusion: that invention is choice, that this choice is imperatively governed by the sense of scientific beauty. Hadamard (1945), Princeton University Press, by permission. The great majority of all sources and amplifiers of microwave energy, and all devices for receiving or detecting microwaves, use a semiconductor active element. The development of microwave semiconductor devices, de- scribed in this book, has proceeded from the simpler, two-terminal, devices such as GUNN or IMPATT devices, which originated in the 1960s, to the sophisticated monolithic circuit MESFET three-terminal active elements, of the 1980s and 1990s. The microwave field has experienced a renais- sance in electrical engineering departments in the last few years, and much of this growth has been associated with microwave semiconductor devices. The University of Massachusetts has recently developed a well recognized program in microwave engineering. Much of the momentum for this pro- gram has been provided by interaction with industrial companies, and the influx of a large number of industry-supported students.
This program had a need for a course in microwave semiconductor devices, which covered the physical aspects, as well as the aspects of interest to the engineer who incorporates such devices in his designs. It was also felt that it would be im- portant to introduce the most recently developed devices (HFETs, HBTs, and other advanced devices) as early as possible.
1 Review of semiconductor physics and devices.- Energy bands.- Statistical properties of electrons and holes.- Carrier transport.- Carrier recombination and generation.- P-N-junctions.- Schottky barriers.- Reverse break-down.- Phonons.- References.- Further reading.- 2 Transferred electron devices (TED) - GUNN devices.- Electron transfer and negative differential mobility.- High-field dipole domains in GUNN devices.- Modes of operation of GUNN devices.- Indium phosphide transferred electron devices/ millimeter wave operation of TED's.- Example: Growth rate of a high-field dipole Domain - the "equal areas" rule.- Stationary domain at the anode.- Problems, Chapter 2.- References.- Further reading.- 3 IMPATT (Impact Avalanche Transit Time) devices.- Operation of IMPATT devices-physical discussion.- Small-signal theory of IMPATT device impedance.- Estimate of the power conversion efficiency of IMPATT devices - a simple large signal model.- Doping profiles for IMPATT diodes.- An analytical large-signal model of IMPATT devices.- Non-steady state large signal models for IMPATT devices.- Problems, Chapter 3.- References.- Additional reading.- 4 Tunneling devices.- Tunnel diodes.- Resonant tunneling devices.- Problems, Chapter 4..- References.- Further reading.- 5 Fundamental limitations on power output from solid-state microwave devices.- The thermal limit.- The electronic limit.- Measured data for rf power.- Problems, Chapter 5.- References.- 6 Basic properties and circuit aspects of oscillators and amplifiers based on two-terminal devices.- A basic oscillator model.- Injection locking of oscillators.- Model for FM- and AM-noise in oscillators.- Actual noise observed in two-terminal solid state devices.- Electronic tuning of solid state oscillators.- Examples of actual circuits and impedance diagrams for GUNN and IMPATT oscillators.- Negative resistance devices used as amplifiers.- Problems, Chapter 6.- References.- Further reading.- 7 Power-combining.- Chip-level power-combining.- Circuit level power combining.- Spatial (quasi-optical) power-combining.- Problems, Chapter 7.- References.- Further reading.- 8 Review of noise processes and noise concepts relevant to microwave semiconductor devices.- Thermal noise - noise figure and equivalent noise temperature.- Shot noise.- Diffusion noise.- Flicker noise, or 1/F-noise.- References.- Further reading.- 9 Diode applications to microwave frequency conversion and control.- Frequency-conversion devices.- Semi-conductor diode detectors.- Schottky barrier diodes.- Semi-conductor diode mixers: intrinsic conversion loss.- Parasitic element effects in semiconductor mixers.- Noise figure/noise temperature of mixer receivers.- Other types of mixers.- Noise temperature versus frequency for mixers.- Varactor harmonic multipliers.- PIN diodes and microwave control devices.- Problems, Chapter 9.- References.- Further reading.- 10 MESFET Devices.- I-V-characteristics of MESFETs.- Small-signal equivalent circuit model.- Ultra-fast electrons, or how ballistic can an electron be.- The Fukui noise model for MESFETs.- The Pucel-Haus-State noise model.- Noise in FET oscillators.- Power-frequency limitations in MESFETs.- Overview.- Problems, Chapter 10.- References.- Further reading.- 11 HFETs - Heterojunction Field Effect Transistors.- Discussion of the I-V-characteristics of a HFET.- Transconductance and cut-off frequencies for HFETs.- Indium-based heterostructures for HFETs.- Microwave equivalent circuit for HFETs.- Noise modeling of HFETs - comparison with MESFETs.- Review of noise data for HFETs and MESFETs.- HFET power amplifiers.- HFET oscillators.- Overview.- Problems, Chapter 11.- References.- Further reading.- 12 Bipolar microwave transistors.- Basic relations for microwave BJTs.- Equivalent circuit of the BJT - frequency-performance.- Noise modeling of BJTs.- BJT power amplifiers and oscillators.- Heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs).- Structure and I-V-characteristics of HBTs.- Equivalent circuit and cut-off-frequencies of HBTs.- HBTs with other material combinations than A1GaAs/GaAs.- Noise properties of HBTs.- HBT power amplifiers and oscillators.- Overview.- Problems, Chapter 12.- References.- Further reading.- 13 Overview of conventional and novel devices.- Hot electron transistors.- Resonant tunneling transistors.- Permeable base transistors.- Review of the performance of microwave semiconductor devices - 1990.- Conclusion.- References.- Further reading.
Series: KLUWER INTERNATIONAL SERIES IN ENGINEERING AND COMPUTER SCIENCE
Number Of Pages: 471
Published: 30th June 1991
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 24.77 x 17.15
Weight (kg): 0.98