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Microwave Radiometer Systems : Design and Analysis - Niels Skou

Microwave Radiometer Systems

Design and Analysis

Hardcover

Published: 19th August 1989
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Assuming a familiarity with the basics of radiometry, this work concentrates on practical, not theoretical experiences dealing with radiometers for sensing the surface of the earth. Topics include: sensitivity and accuracy, block diagram level, the TUD noise-injection, calibration, imaging, spacebor

Introductionp. 1
Summaryp. 3
The Radiometer Receiver. Sensitivity and Accuracyp. 7
What is a Radiometer Receiver?p. 7
The Sensitivity of the Radiometerp. 8
Absolute Accuracyp. 9
Radiometer Principlesp. 13
The Total Power Radiometer (TPR)p. 13
The Dicke Radiometer (DR)p. 14
The Noise-Injection Radiometer (NIR)p. 16
Other Radiometer Typesp. 19
Radiometer Receivers on Block Diagram Levelp. 21
Receiver Principlesp. 21
Direct or Superheterodynep. 21
DSB - SSB with or without RF Preamplifierp. 22
Dicke Radiometerp. 23
Microwave Partp. 23
The Noise Figure and the Sensitivity of the Radiometerp. 25
The IF Circuitry and the Detectorp. 26
The Extreme Signal Levelsp. 27
The LF Circuitryp. 28
The Analog to Digital Converterp. 30
On the Sampling in the Radiometer. Aliasingp. 34
The Noise-Injection Radiometerp. 35
The Total Power Radiometerp. 38
Stability Considerationsp. 40
Example: the Tud Noise-Injection Radiometersp. 41
Calibrationp. 49
Why Calibrate?p. 49
Calibration Sourcesp. 50
Example: Calibration of the TUD 5 GHz Radiometerp. 54
Sensitivity and Accuracy of Different Radiometer Typesp. 57
Backgroundp. 57
The Radiometers Used in the Experimentsp. 58
The Experimental Setupp. 60
5 GHz Sensitivity Measurementsp. 60
Stability Measurementsp. 62
Discussion of the 5 GHz DR Resultsp. 62
The 5 GHz DR with Correction Algorithmp. 65
The 17 GHz NIR Resultsp. 70
Discussion of the TPR Resultsp. 73
Back-End Stabilityp. 75
Conclusionsp. 78
Radiometer Antennas: Imaging Considerationsp. 81
Beam Efficiency and Lossesp. 81
Antenna Typesp. 83
Imaging Considerationsp. 85
The Dwell Time per Footprint versus the Sampling Time in the Radiometerp. 90
Receiver Considerations for Imagersp. 95
Relationships Between Swathwidth, Footprint, Integration Time, Sensitivity, Frequency, and Other Parameters for Satellite-Borne Imaging Systemsp. 97
Mechanical Scanp. 98
Push-Broom Systemsp. 104
Summary and Discussionp. 105
Examplesp. 106
General Purpose Multifrequency Missionp. 106
Coastal Salinity Sensorp. 108
First Example of Spaceborne Imager: a Sea Salinity/Soil Moisture Push-Broom Radiometer Systemp. 109
Backgroundp. 109
The Brightness Temperature of the Seap. 110
The Brightness Temperature of Moist Soilp. 111
User Requirements for Geophysical and Spatial Resolutionp. 112
Salinity Measurementsp. 112
Soil Moisture Measurementsp. 112
A 1.4 GHz Push-Broom Radiometer Systemp. 113
Sensitivity Considerationsp. 113
Design of a 1.4 GHz Noise-Injection Radiometer Receiverp. 113
Antenna Considerationsp. 116
Layout of the Systemp. 117
A 2.7 GHz Companion Radiometer Systemp. 117
Calibrationp. 119
Disturbing Factors: Faraday Rotation, Space Radiation, Atmospherep. 121
Faraday Rotationp. 121
Space Radiationp. 123
Atmospheric Effectsp. 124
Summaryp. 124
Second Example of Spaceborne Imager: "General Purpose" Mechanical Scannerp. 127
Backgroundp. 127
System Considerationsp. 129
Geometric and Radiometric Characteristics for MIMRp. 129
Preferred Instrument Optionsp. 131
Data Ratep. 134
Receiver Types and Calibrationp. 134
Receiver Designp. 135
The Dual Receiver Conceptp. 135
The Receiversp. 139
Physical Characteristics of the Receiversp. 142
Critical Design Featuresp. 145
Antenna Designp. 146
Calibrationp. 148
Pre-Launch Radiometric Calibrationp. 148
On-Board Calibrationp. 149
Summaryp. 150
Referencesp. 153
Acronymsp. 159
Indexp. 161
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890063682
ISBN-10: 0890063680
Series: Remote sensing library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 176
Published: 19th August 1989
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 1.4
Weight (kg): 0.43