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Microwave NDT : Developments in Electromagnetic Theory and Applications - Nathan Ida

Microwave NDT

Developments in Electromagnetic Theory and Applications

Hardcover

Published: 30th November 1992
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Microwave testing has been paid only scant attention in the literature as a method for nondestructive testing of materials, yet it offers some attractive features, especially for the testing of composite and other non-metallic materials.
Microwave techniques have been used in a large number of applications that can be classified as nondestructive testing applications, ranging from large scale remote sensing to detection of tumors in the body.
This volume describes a unified approach to microwave nondestructive testing by presenting the three essential components of testing: theory, practice, and modelling. While recognizing that each of these subjects is wide enough to justify a volume of its own, the presentation of the three topics together shows that these are interrelated and should be practiced together. While few will argue against a good theoretical background, modelling and simulation of the testing environment is seldom part of the NDT training in any method, but particularly so in microwave testing.
The text is devided in four parts. The first part presents the field theory background necessary for understanding the microwave domain. The second part treats microwave measurements as well as devices and sources and the third part discusses practical tests applicable to a variety of materials and geometries. The fourth part discusses modelling of microwave testing. Each chapter contains a bibliography intended to expand on the material given and, in particular, to point to subjects which could not be covered either as not appropriate or for lack of space.
For engineers, applied physicsts, material scientists.

Preface
Introductionp. 1
Electromagnetic Field Theory
The Electromagnetic Field Equations and Theoretical Aspectsp. 10
Introduction:The Electromagnetic Field Equationsp. 10
Maxwell's Equations in Differential Formp. 11
Maxwell's Equations in Integral Formp. 14
Material Properties and constitutive Relationsp. 16
The Poynting Theorem and Energyp. 20
Potential Functionsp. 24
The Field Equations in Terms of Potential Functionsp. 27
The General, Time Dependent Wave Equationp. 30
Propagation of Waves: Plane Waves in Lossless Dielectricsp. 33
Propagation of Plane Waves in Lossy Mediap. 38
Electromagnetic Boundary Conditionsp. 44
Transmission Lines, Waveguides, and Resonant Cavities
Perturbation Techniquesp. 93
Reflection, Transmission, and Scattering of Wavesp. 103
Polarization of Plane Wavesp. 103
Reflection and Transmission of Plane Wavesp. 107
Brewster Angle, Total Reflection, and Surface Wavesp. 126
Reflection and Transmission for Layered Materials at Normal Incidencep. 132
Reflection and Transmission for Layered Dielectrics: Oblique Incidencep. 141
Scatteringp. 147
Microwave Techniques and Devices
Microwave Measurement Techniquesp. 152
Power Measurementsp. 152
Frequency Measurementsp. 157
Q Measurementsp. 161
Attenuation Measurementsp. 163
Standing Wave Ratio and Reflection Coefficient Measurementsp. 165
Microwave Microscopyp. 167
An example of Test Setup: The Balanced Microwave Interferometerp. 168
Microwave Sources, Sensors, and Devicesp. 171
Generation of Microwave Fields: Microwave Tubesp. 172
Microwave Liner-Beam Tubes (O-Tubes)p. 175
Solid State Microwave Devicesp. 179
Microwave Circuitsp. 184
Coupling of Microwaves Sources to the Test Samplep. 186
Microwave Probes and Sensorsp. 187
Waveguide Probesp. 189
Antennasp. 189
Open Waveguides as Sources and Probesp. 191
Passive Microwave Devicesp. 192
Testing
Dimensional Testingp. 201
Introduction: Testing with Microwavesp. 201
Thickness Gagingp. 206
Transmission and Attenuation Tests in Dielectrics and Lossy Dielectricsp. 214
Standing Wave Measurementsp. 223
Phase Measurements on the Transmission and Reflection Coefficientsp. 225
Frequency Measurementsp. 226
Measurement of Coated Conductorsp. 228
Testing for Discontinuitiesp. 231
Scattering Methods of Flaw Detectionp. 232
Location of flawsp. 237
Scanning Measurementsp. 242
Automatic Testingp. 244
Testing by Monitoring Material Properties
Transmission Testsp. 247
Reflection and Attenuation Testsp. 250
Resonant Methodsp. 253
Scattering Methodsp. 267
Modeling of the Testing Environment
Methods of Modelingp. 274
Purpose and Scope of Modelingp. 274
General Approach to Modeling: Numericalp. 275
The Finite Difference Methodp. 278
Finite Element Methods (FEM)p. 287
Boundary Integral Methods: The Method of Momentsp. 297
Modeling of the Time-Dependent Wave Equationp. 317
Formulation of the Time Dependent Wave Equationp. 317
The Axi-Symmetric Formulationp. 327
Radiation Boundary Conditionsp. 329
Finite Difference Implementationp. 330
Examplesp. 334
3-D Formulation With the Finite Difference Time Domain Methodp. 340
Modeling of the Time-Harmonic Wave Equationp. 346
The Time Harmonic Wave Equationsp. 347
The Weak Form Approachp. 361
Examplesp. 365
Miscellaneous Topics
Miscellaneous Topicsp. 374
Tables of Material Propertiesp. 374
Hyperbolic and Exponential Functionsp. 377
Euler's Equationp. 378
Appendix A. Vector Relationsp. 381
The Gradient, Divergence, and Curlp. 381
Vector Theoremsp. 383
Vector Identitiesp. 384
The Laplacianp. 384
Expressions in Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinatesp. 385
Subject Indexp. 387
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792320074
ISBN-10: 0792320077
Series: Developments in Electromagnetic Theory and Applications
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 395
Published: 30th November 1992
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.5  x 3.18
Weight (kg): 1.69