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Microhardness of Polymers : Cambridge Solid State Science Series - F. J. Balta-Calleja

Microhardness of Polymers

Cambridge Solid State Science Series

Hardcover Published: 26th October 2000
ISBN: 9780521642187
Number Of Pages: 252

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This book deals with the micromechanical characterization of polymer materials. It emphasizes microhardness as a technique capable of detecting a variety of morphological and textural changes in polymers. The authors provide a comprehensive introduction to the microhardness of polymers, including descriptions of the various testing methods in materials science and engineering. They also discuss the micromechanical study of glassy polymers and the relevant aspects of microhardness of semicrystalline polymers. Numerous application examples of the microhardness technique for the characterization of polymeric materials help readers develop a solid understanding of the material. These real world examples include the influence of polymer processing, the use in weathering tests, the characterization of modified polymer surfaces, and others. This book will be of use to graduate level materials science students, as well as research workers in materials science, mechanical engineering and physics departments interested in the microindentation hardness of polymer materials.

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'... the most attractive feature of these lecture notes is their unreserved topicality ... towards the end of the book reading becomes really exciting when the author gives an outlook to a collection of up-to-the-minute unresolved problems. The reader feels invited to contribute to an attractive and challenging field of research.' H. W. Muller, Contemporary Physics

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
Hardness in materials science and engineeringp. 1
Microhardness in polymer sciencep. 5
Microhardness and deformation modes in polymersp. 5
Microhardness additivity lawp. 6
Tabor's relationp. 6
Microhardness of polymers in contrast to metalsp. 8
Referencesp. 9
Microhardness determination in polymeric materialsp. 11
Mechanics and geometry of indentationp. 13
Time dependencep. 15
Experimental details: sample preparationp. 16
Microhardness measurement on cylindrical surfacesp. 18
Microhardness calculation of crystalline polymersp. 19
Crystal destruction boundaryp. 20
Temperature dependence of microhardness in crystalline polymersp. 21
Microhardness of oriented materialsp. 24
Effect of plastic deformation on the microhardnessp. 24
Anisotropy behaviour of oriented polymersp. 26
Microindentation vs nanoindentationp. 31
Microindentation instrumentsp. 33
Nanoindentation instrumentsp. 35
Outlookp. 41
Referencesp. 42
Microhardness of glassy polymersp. 46
Introduction to glassy polymersp. 46
The glass transitionp. 46
Physical ageingp. 49
Temperature dependence of microhardness in polymer glasses: determination of T[subscript g]p. 50
Physical ageing of polymer glasses as revealed by microhardnessp. 56
Homopolymersp. 56
Copolymersp. 61
Correlation between microhardness and the glass transition temperaturep. 62
Micromechanics of polymer glassesp. 65
Crazing in glassy polymersp. 65
Micromechanics of crazes studied by ultramicrohardnessp. 67
Microhardness and elastic moduli of glassy microfibrilsp. 70
Referencesp. 77
Microhardness of crystalline polymersp. 80
Introduction to crystalline polymersp. 80
Polymer crystallizationp. 80
Morphologyp. 82
Polymorphismp. 85
Microhardness of lamellar structuresp. 87
Deformation mechanismp. 87
Effect of crystallinity on microhardnessp. 90
Models to predict hardness of lamellar crystals: role of lamellar thicknessp. 95
Relationship between crystal hardness and melting temperaturep. 100
Microhardness and surface free energyp. 101
The role of entanglementsp. 102
Influence of chain endsp. 103
Influence of molecular weight on microhardness through physical structurep. 106
Transitions in crystalline polymers as revealed by microhardnessp. 109
Polymorphic transitionsp. 109
Curie transitionp. 109
Crystallization kinetics as revealed by microhardnessp. 113
Correlation of microhardness to macroscopic mechanical propertiesp. 117
Mechanical modelsp. 118
Correlation between hardness and yield stressp. 118
Comparison with elastoplastic modelsp. 119
Correlation between hardness and elastic modulusp. 121
Referencesp. 123
Microhardness of polymer blends, copolymers and compositesp. 127
Blends of polyolefinsp. 127
Model predictions in PE blendsp. 127
Deviations from the microhardness additivity law: PE/PP blendsp. 132
Blends of non-crystallizable componentsp. 136
Microhardness of coreactive blends: the influence of chemical interactionsp. 137
Coreactive blends of PET and PCp. 138
Blends of PET and PENp. 141
Blends with functionalized polyolefinsp. 144
Mechanical studies of condensation copolymersp. 144
Microhardness of multicomponent systems with T[subscript g] below room temperaturep. 148
Systems which deviate from the hardness additivity lawp. 157
Some limits of the equation H = kT[subscript g] + Cp. 161
Microhardness of polymer compositesp. 161
Carbon fibre compositesp. 162
Sintered materialsp. 164
Fullerene-polymer matrix compositesp. 164
Mechanical model of microfibrillar-reinforced compositesp. 165
Referencesp. 172
Microhardness of polymers under strainp. 176
Polymorphic transitions in crystalline polymersp. 176
Stress-induced polymorphic transition in homopolymers, copolymers and blendsp. 178
Effect of stress-induced polymorphic transition of PBT on microhardnessp. 178
Microhardness behaviour during stress-induced polymorphic transition in block copolymers of PBTp. 185
Microhardness behaviour during stress-induced polymorphic transition in the blend of PBT with its block copolymersp. 193
Reversible microhardness in polyblock thermoplastic elastomers with PBT as the hard segmentsp. 198
Referencesp. 202
Application of microhardness techniques to the characterization of polymer materialsp. 205
Effect on microhardness of processing conditions of polymersp. 205
Microindentation anisotropy in injection-moulded PEp. 206
The influence of processing parameters on injection-moulded PETp. 211
Characterization of natural polymersp. 214
Starchp. 214
Gelatinp. 218
Keratinp. 221
Mechanical changes at polymer surfacesp. 222
Wearing of polymer implantsp. 222
Characterization of irradiated and ion-implanted polymer surfacesp. 225
Weatherability characterization of polymer materialsp. 227
Very-near-surface microhardening of weathered window-grade PVCp. 227
Damage characterization of carbon-reinforced compositesp. 227
Weathering of i-PP pipesp. 228
Conclusionsp. 230
Referencesp. 230
Author indexp. 233
Subject indexp. 236
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521642187
ISBN-10: 0521642183
Series: Cambridge Solid State Science Series
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 252
Published: 26th October 2000
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 25.4 x 17.78  x 1.6
Weight (kg): 0.65

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