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Microfluidic Technology and Applications : Microtechnologies & Microsystems - Michael Koch

Microfluidic Technology and Applications

Microtechnologies & Microsystems

Hardcover

Published: 5th June 2007
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Discusses different modelling techniques in microfluidics (FEM and CFD). Every reader will have an easy start to model any kind of microfluidic device. Presents the necessary fabrication technologies and examples of the latest microfluidic devices and systems. Microfluidics is a very new research area in microelectro-mechanical systems (MEMS). This book introduces the theory and practice of microfluidic technology. The content is designed to be of value to engineers with different backgrounds working in the area of microsystem technology. The book includes the necessary fabrication technologies and examples of the latest microfluidic devices and systems that have been realised by a worldwide community of researchers. It covers all aspects of microfluidic theory and describes the breath-taking developments in this field.

List of Figuresp. XII
List of Tablesp. XXI
Introductionp. 1
Theory of Microfluidic Flowp. 3
Fluid Mechanicsp. 3
One-dimensional Nonviscous Flowp. 4
Two-dimensional Laminar Viscous Flowp. 5
Dimensional Analysisp. 7
Similitudep. 8
Turbulent Flowp. 9
Flow in a Diffuser and Nozzlep. 11
Three-dimensional Fluid Flowp. 17
Microfluidics: Differences between Microscopic and Macroscopic Flowp. 20
Laminar and Turbulent Flow Regimesp. 20
Practical Problems in Liquid Flow at Small Dimensionsp. 21
Mechanical Aspects of Microfluidic Devicesp. 22
Mechanics of Materialsp. 22
Elementary Theory of Elasticityp. 22
Bending of Beams and Bridgesp. 25
Basic Mechanicsp. 26
Equations for Cantilevers and Clamped Beamsp. 29
Natural Frequenciesp. 32
Mechanics of Platesp. 33
Fundamental Differential Equationp. 33
Rectangular Platesp. 34
Circular Platesp. 36
Natural Frequenciesp. 36
Actuation Techniques for Microfluidic Devicesp. 37
The Piezoelectric Effectp. 37
Theory of Piezoelectricityp. 37
Applications in Micromechanicsp. 41
Bimetallic Actuation Techniquep. 47
Shape-memory Effect in Micromechanical Applicationsp. 49
Electrostatic Actuation Techniquep. 50
Thermopneumatic Actuatorsp. 51
Magnetic Microactuatorsp. 53
Evaluation of the Actuation Techniques for Microfluidicsp. 54
Modelling Techniquesp. 57
The Finite Element Method: an Introductionp. 57
Numerical Integration of Differential Equationsp. 57
One-dimensional Mechanical Finite Element Methodp. 60
Computational Fluid Mechanicsp. 61
Finite Difference Methodp. 62
Finite Element Method (FEM)p. 63
Use of FEM Programsp. 64
Examples for mechanical FEMp. 66
Examples for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)p. 68
Coupled FEM and CFD Simulators in Microfluidicsp. 71
Description of the Simulation Methodp. 73
Simulation Results and Comparison with Measurementsp. 76
Analytical Approximationsp. 78
Micromachined Cantilever Valvesp. 79
Simple Analytical Approach for the Volume Flowp. 79
Coupled Analytical Approximationp. 80
Membrane-Actuated Pumpsp. 83
Continuity Equation and Quasi-Static Modelp. 83
Pump Model with Dynamic Valve Approximationp. 88
Pump Model with Behavioural Model of the Valvep. 94
Comparison of the different Dynamic Solversp. 98
Thermal Flowsensorsp. 99
Fabrication Technologyp. 106
Introductionp. 106
Processing Techniques in Microelectronicsp. 107
Introductionp. 108
Crystal Growthp. 108
Lithographyp. 111
Oxidation of Siliconp. 113
Physical and Chemical Vapour Depositionp. 115
Chemical Vapour Depositionp. 115
Physical Vapour Depositionp. 119
Diffusion and Implantation of Dopantsp. 121
Dry and Wet Etching Techniquesp. 123
Micromechanical Fabrication Methodsp. 125
Wet Isotropic and Anisotropic Etching of Siliconp. 125
Bonding Techniques for Silicon and Pyrexp. 130
Surface Micromachiningp. 132
Deep Dry Etchingp. 134
Ion Beam Millingp. 135
Sol-Gel Depositionp. 137
Special Microfluidic Processesp. 139
Thick-Film-On-Silicon Techniquep. 139
Introduction to Thick-Film Technologyp. 139
Process Sequence for a Piezoelectric Actuatorp. 141
Diffusion of Lead into Siliconp. 143
Characterisation of the Inksp. 145
Isotropic Etching of Pyrexp. 146
LIGA Techniquep. 148
Microfluidic Devices I: Flow Controlp. 151
Introductionp. 151
Inkjet Nozzles and Flow Amplificationp. 151
Nozzles for Inkjet and Fuel Injectionp. 152
Microfluidic Amplifiersp. 154
Micromachined Turbinesp. 157
Active and Passive Valvesp. 159
Passive One-Way Valves in Bulk and Surface Micromachiningp. 159
Cantilever Valvesp. 159
Diaphragm Valvesp. 164
Bivalvular Valvesp. 170
Diffuser/Nozzle Valvep. 171
Actuation Techniques for Valvesp. 173
Micromachined Pumpsp. 177
Membrane-Actuated Pumpsp. 177
Overviewp. 178
Thermopneumatic Pumpsp. 182
Piezoelectric Pumpsp. 183
Bimetallic actuated Pumpsp. 197
Electrostatically actuated Micropumpsp. 198
Pumps with the Shape-Memory Effectp. 200
Electric Field Actuated Pumpsp. 201
Electrohydrodynamic Pumpsp. 201
Electroosmotic Pumpsp. 204
Other Actuation Techniquesp. 206
In-Line Gear Pumpsp. 206
Travelling Flexural Wave (Ultrasonic)p. 207
Physical Sensors for Microfluidicsp. 208
Flowsensorsp. 208
Drag-force Flowsensorsp. 208
Differential Pressure Methodp. 210
Thermal Flowsensorsp. 210
Electrohydrodynamic Flowsensorsp. 212
High-speed X-Ray Micro-Imagingp. 213
Pressure Sensorsp. 213
Piezoresistive Pressure Sensorsp. 213
Capacitive Pressure Sensorsp. 215
Resonating Pressure Sensorsp. 215
Microfluidic Devices II: Particles and Chemistryp. 217
Introductionp. 217
Particle and Cell Handling with Microfluidicsp. 217
Introduction to Dielectrophoresisp. 217
Particle/Cell Trappingp. 218
Transportation and Separation of Particlesp. 218
Particle Countingp. 222
Mixing and Chemistry on the Micronscalep. 227
Diffusive Mixing Principlep. 227
Chaotic Mixing Processesp. 235
Microreactors and Chemistry on a Chipp. 236
Chemical Analysis with MEMSp. 238
Introductionp. 238
Flow Injection Analysisp. 243
Liquid and Gas Chromatographyp. 243
Capillary Electrophoresisp. 245
DNA Analysis based on MEMSp. 248
Biochemical Sensors for Microfluidicsp. 249
Semiconductor Devices used for Chemical Sensorsp. 250
Chemdiodesp. 250
Chemfetp. 251
Metal Oxide Gas Sensorsp. 253
Catalytic Gas-sensorsp. 257
Optical Sensing Techniques for Chemicalsp. 258
Biosensorsp. 259
Integrated Microfluidic Systemsp. 263
Microsystems Technologyp. 263
Advantages of Integrationp. 263
Integration of Micromechanics and Microelectronicsp. 264
Integration of Microfluidics and Microelectronicsp. 266
Connection Systems for Microfluidic Devicesp. 268
Vertical System Integrationp. 268
Moulded Connection Systemp. 269
Silicon Tubingp. 270
Pyrex-Silicon Microfluidic Circuit Boardp. 271
Applications of Integrated Microfluidic Devicesp. 274
Micro Dosing Systems and Drug Deliveryp. 274
Chemical Microplantsp. 277
Medical, Chemical and Environmental Monitoringp. 279
Drug Discovery and Genetic Diagnosticsp. 283
Conclusionp. 287
Abbreviations and Acronymsp. 288
Referencesp. 289
Indexp. 315
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780863802447
ISBN-10: 0863802443
Series: Microtechnologies & Microsystems
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 340
Published: 5th June 2007
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.17 x 15.89  x 2.41
Weight (kg): 0.65
Edition Number: 1