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Microelectronic Reliability : Integrity, Assessment and Assurance v. 2 - Emiliano Pollino

Microelectronic Reliability

Integrity, Assessment and Assurance v. 2

By: Emiliano Pollino (Editor)

Hardcover Published: 19th April 1989
ISBN: 9780890063507
Number Of Pages: 556

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A companion to v.1 (which covers reliability, test, and diagnostics), this volume explains the main failure mechanisms which may affect silicon devices and shows their effect on reliability characteristics. Due to the importance of VLSI devices, emphasis is given to metalizations and latch-up. Acidi

Prefacep. xiii
The Technological Revolution and Reliabilityp. 1
Reliability Engineeringp. 1
The Historic Evolution of Reliability Engineeringp. 2
Characteristics of Semiconductor Technology and Its Influence on Reliabilityp. 6
Evolution of Investigation in Reliabilityp. 10
Basics of Semiconductor Device Technologyp. 15
Introductionp. 15
Technology of Silicon Integrated Circuitsp. 22
Technology of Gallium Arsenide Integrated Circuitsp. 37
Degradation Mechanisms in Insulating Films on Siliconp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Conduction Mechanisms in Thin Oxidesp. 51
Instabilities Due to Contaminationp. 73
Conclusionsp. 80
Corrosion of Metalizationsp. 83
Introductionp. 83
General Principles of Corrosionp. 83
Corrosion of Aluminump. 91
Corrosion of Goldp. 94
Corrosion of Ni-Crp. 97
Conclusionsp. 97
Appendix: Corrosion Phenomena Affecting Assemblyp. 99
Electromigration in Thin Film Conductorsp. 103
Introductionp. 103
Fundamental Aspects of Electromigrationp. 104
The Atomic Flux and its Divergencep. 105
Electrical Tests to Evaluate Electromigration Failuresp. 109
Electromigration Phenomena in I.C. Thin Filmsp. 112
Contact Electromigrationp. 115
Metal-Silicon Interactionsp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Properties of Matterp. 121
Metal-Semiconductor Contactp. 127
Metal-Metal Contactsp. 136
Diffusion Barriersp. 141
Future Developmentsp. 147
Latch-Up in Cmos Integrated Circuitsp. 151
The Physics of Latch-Upp. 151
Electrical Characterizationp. 155
Analytical Techniquesp. 167
Layout and Technological Improvements for Avoiding Latch-Upp. 182
Modeling the pnpn Parasitic Structurep. 189
Reliability of Compound Semiconductor Microwave Field Effect Devicesp. 195
Introductionp. 195
Microwave GaAs MESFETSsp. 197
Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuitsp. 240
Heterostructure Field Effect Transistorsp. 244
Conclusionsp. 253
Reliability of Optoelectronic Componentsp. 259
Emittersp. 259
Photodetectorsp. 298
Power Device Reliabilityp. 311
Introductionp. 311
Mechanical and Thermomechanical Stress in Plastic-Packaged Power ICsp. 314
ESD Protection in Bipolar ICsp. 327
Second Breakdownp. 334
Parasitic MOSp. 338
Appendix A: Reliability of Molding Compoundsp. 341
Appendix B: Thermal Resistance and Thermal Impedancep. 346
Accelerated Testsp. 361
Definition and Scopep. 361
Test Carried Out by Increasing the Temperaturep. 361
Accelerated Humidity Testsp. 374
Voltage Accelerated Testsp. 388
Tests Increasing Mechanical Stressesp. 392
Microanalysis Techniquesp. 401
General Comments on Microanalysis Techniquesp. 401
Scanning Electron Microscopyp. 405
Type of Contrast and Information for the Various Modes of SEM Operationp. 420
X-Ray Microanalysisp. 430
Auger Electron Microanalysisp. 441
Failure Analysis And Technological Characterizationp. 453
Introductionp. 453
Failure Analysisp. 454
Technological Analysisp. 485
Conclusionsp. 489
Examples of Technological Analysisp. 490
Example of Failure Analysisp. 496
Reliability Problems And Standardsp. 505
Introductionp. 505
Main Characteristics of the Electronic Components Marketp. 505
Problems Concerning Components Quality and Reliabilityp. 506
Differences and Connections Between Reliability and Certificationp. 509
Product Standards for Electronic Componentsp. 510
Main Standards for Component Reliabilityp. 518
Architecture of Performance and Assessment Operations for Electronic Componentsp. 521
The Authorsp. 527
Indexp. 533
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890063507
ISBN-10: 0890063508
Series: Electronic Materials & Devices Library : Book 2
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 556
Published: 19th April 1989
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 3.4
Weight (kg): 1.09