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Microelectronic Reliability : Reliability, Test and Diagnostics v. 1 - Edward B. Hakim

Microelectronic Reliability

Reliability, Test and Diagnostics v. 1

By: Edward B. Hakim (Editor)

Hardcover

Published: 19th February 1989
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Text/reference spaning the theoretical concepts of reliability models and failure distributions, to GaAs microcircuit processing and test. Provides background on the development of quality assurance and verification procedures. Some of the new changes under development to cope with pressures brought

Prefacep. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Statistical Aspects for Reliabilityp. 1
An Overview of the Role of Statisticsp. 1
Basic Notation and Terminologyp. 2
Concepts of Probability Distributions and Probability Densitiesp. 3
Probability Distribution Functionsp. 4
Important Functionsp. 7
Statistical Measuresp. 11
Statistical Inferencep. 13
Distributions for Inferencep. 14
Estimationp. 15
Hypothesis Testingp. 16
The Central Limit Theoremp. 19
Experimental Designp. 20
The Sampling Processp. 20
Selecting the Samplep. 20
Sampling Proceduresp. 21
Failure Mechanisms in Microelectronic Devicesp. 25
Introductionp. 25
Scope--Types of Microelectronic Devicesp. 26
Failure Modes and Failure Mechanismsp. 28
Yield and Reliabilityp. 29
Types of Stressesp. 30
Failure Analysisp. 31
Designing-in Reliability versus Screeningp. 33
Semiconductor Bulk Failure Mechanismsp. 34
Second Breakdownp. 34
Latch-Upp. 34
Single-Event Upsetp. 36
Bulk Radiation Effectsp. 37
Chip Fracturep. 38
Semiconductor-Dielectric Interface Failure Mechanismsp. 38
Alkali Ion Migrationp. 39
Slow Trapping Instabilityp. 40
Hot-Carrier Effectsp. 42
Surface Charge Spreadingp. 43
Polarizationp. 44
Ionizing Radiation Effectsp. 45
Dielectric Effectsp. 45
Time-Dependent Dielectric Breakdownp. 46
Dielectric Wearoutp. 47
Fracture of Dielectricp. 48
Passivation Layersp. 48
Breakdown due to EOS or ESDp. 49
Conductor and Metalization Failure Mechanismsp. 50
Electromigrationp. 50
Failure at Microcracksp. 53
Corrosion Effectsp. 54
Metal Migrationp. 55
Contact Spikingp. 55
Hillock Formationp. 56
Assembly and Packaging-Related Failure Mechanismsp. 57
Failure Mechanisms in Die Bondsp. 57
Wire Bondsp. 57
Purple Plaguep. 58
Failure Mechanisms in Hermetically Sealed Packagesp. 59
Contaminant Effectsp. 59
Plastic Encapsulation-Related Failuresp. 60
Device Metal Pattern Distortion by Plasticp. 61
Plastic-Induced Device Stress Effectsp. 61
Effects of Technology Trendsp. 61
Technology Trendsp. 62
Scaling to Smaller Dimensionsp. 62
Increased Device Complexityp. 64
Tradeoffsp. 64
Reliability Trendsp. 65
Testability for Functional Verification and Diagnosticsp. 89
Introductionp. 89
Objective and Terminology for Digital Testingp. 90
Definition of Most Frequently Used Termsp. 90
Fault Modelsp. 91
Testing Objectivesp. 95
Test Pattern Generationp. 95
Test Pattern Validationp. 96
Test Pattern Applicationp. 100
Structured Design for Testability Techniquesp. 101
Level-Sensitive Scan Design (LSSD)p. 102
Scan Pathp. 105
Scan-Set Logicp. 106
Random Access Scanp. 109
Incomplete Scan Path Designp. 110
Built-in Self-Testingp. 112
Signature Analysisp. 114
Built-in Logic Block Observerp. 123
Summaryp. 124
Automatic Testingp. 129
Introductionp. 129
Overview of Testingp. 130
The Test Philosophyp. 132
The Evolution of Test Engineeringp. 133
Automatic Testing and the ATEp. 134
Introduction to Automatic Testingp. 134
ATE Building Blocksp. 134
Using an ATEp. 140
The ATE Investmentp. 142
The IC Under Testp. 144
Types of ICsp. 145
Types of Testsp. 147
Tester Independencep. 151
Test Program Set Developmentp. 153
What is a Test Program Set?p. 153
Manual Test Generationp. 154
Simulationp. 157
Physical Emulationp. 174
Automatic Test Generationp. 177
Interfacesp. 186
Summary of TPS Developmentp. 191
ATE Economicsp. 191
Why Do ICs Fail?p. 203
The Economics of IC Burn-Inp. 203
The Economics of Testabilityp. 205
Summary of ATE Economicsp. 208
Summaryp. 208
Manufacturing Process Controlp. 215
Introductionp. 215
Process Characterizationp. 217
Process Capability Studiesp. 219
Factors Internal to the Manufacturing Processp. 220
External Sources of Variationp. 223
Determining the Process Capabilityp. 225
Major Steps in a Process Capability Studyp. 225
Control Chartsp. 229
Investigation of Out-of-Control Conditionsp. 234
Process Optimizationp. 235
Process and Product Control and Monitoringp. 236
The Need for Control and Monitoringp. 236
Process Controlp. 236
Statistical Samplingp. 237
Process and Product Improvementp. 238
GaAs Reliability and Testp. 241
Technology Descriptionp. 241
Introductionp. 241
Digital GaAs IC Structuresp. 243
GaAs MMIC Structuresp. 247
In-Process Testp. 247
Test Structuresp. 249
Electrostatic Discharge Protectionp. 253
Digital GaAs ICsp. 253
Digital Circuit Design with GaAs MESFETsp. 253
Digital GaAs Circuit Packagingp. 263
Digital Circuit Testingp. 265
GaAs Microwave Circuitsp. 266
Introductionp. 266
Components for GaAs MMICsp. 266
Circuit Designp. 280
RF Testingp. 284
Reliability of GaAs Microelectronicsp. 286
Failure Mechanismsp. 286
Radiation Effectsp. 296
Life Testing of GaAs ICsp. 302
Advanced Failure Analysis Instrumentationp. 313
List of Acronymsp. 359
Glossaryp. 361
Indexp. 367
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890062845
ISBN-10: 0890062846
Series: Materials science library : Book 1
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 396
Published: 19th February 1989
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 2.5
Weight (kg): 0.75