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Microbiological Analysis of Food and Water : Guidelines for Quality Assurance - N.F. Lightfoot

Microbiological Analysis of Food and Water

Guidelines for Quality Assurance

By: N.F. Lightfoot (Editor), E. A. Maier (Editor)

Paperback Published: 2nd February 1999
ISBN: 9780444502032
Number Of Pages: 284

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With the help of leading Quality Assurance (QA) and Quality Control (QC) microbiology specialists in Europe, a complete set of guidelines on how to start and implement a quality system in a microbiological laboratory has been prepared, supported by the European Commission through the Measurement and Testing Programme. The working group included food and water microbiologists from various testing laboratories, universities and industry, as well as statisticians and QA and QC specialists in chemistry.


This book contains the outcome of their work. It has been written with the express objective of using simple but accurate wording so as to be accessible to all microbiology laboratory staff. To facilitate reading, the more specialized items, in particular some statistical treatments, have been added as an annex to the book. All QA and QC tools mentioned within these guidelines have been developed and applied by the authors in their own laboratories. All aspects dealing with reference materials and interlaboratory studies have been taken in a large part from the projects conducted within the BCR and Measurement and Testing Programmes of the European Commission.


With so many different quality control procedures, their introduction in a laboratory would appear to be a formidable task. The authors recognize that each laboratory manager will choose the most appropriate procedures, depending on the type and size of the laboratory in question. Accreditation bodies will not expect the introduction of all measures, only those that are appropriate for a particular laboratory.

Features of this book:

- Gives all quality assurance and control measures to be taken, from sampling to expression of results

- Provides practical aspects of quality control to be applied both for the analyst and top management

- Describes the use of reference materials for statistical control of methods and use of certified reference materials (including statistical tools).

Prefacep. v
List of contributorsp. ix
Scope and purposep. 1
Introductionp. 1
Implications of incorrect resultsp. 1
Quality assurancep. 2
Types of laboratoriesp. 4
Elements of a quality assurance programmep. 5
Accreditationp. 7
Benefits of a quality assurance programmep. 7
Referencesp. 8
Implementation of quality assurance programmesp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Personnel (see Chapter 3)p. 10
Media (see Chapter 6)p. 11
Methods (see Chapter 7)p. 12
Equipment (see Chapter 5)p. 12
Sample handling (see Chapter 4)p. 13
Data handling (see Chapter 9)p. 13
Quality control systems (see Chapter 8)p. 14
Follow-upp. 15
Referencesp. 18
People, management and organizationp. 19
Introductionp. 19
Peoplep. 20
Managementp. 20
Qualifications of staffp. 20
Trainingp. 23
Laboratory accommodation and environmentp. 24
Safetyp. 27
Working proceduresp. 29
Communication and customer relationsp. 29
Complaints managementp. 30
Referencesp. 31
Samplingp. 33
Introductionp. 33
Distribution of organisms in food and waterp. 35
Sampling plansp. 36
Foodp. 37
Acceptance/rejection testingp. 37
End product testingp. 37
Trend analysisp. 38
Statutory testingp. 38
Investigative samplingp. 39
Outbreak analysisp. 39
Environmental and hygiene monitoringp. 39
Food sample transportp. 40
Intermediate storage of food samplesp. 42
Waterp. 42
Recreational water testingp. 43
Potable water testingp. 44
Bottled water testingp. 46
Other water testingp. 46
Sample recordsp. 47
Sampler trainingp. 47
Sample transportp. 47
Sample receptionp. 48
Summaryp. 48
Referencesp. 49
Equipmentp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Types of sterilization apparatusp. 53
Heat sterilizationp. 53
Steam sterilizationp. 54
Temperature and pressure measurement and recordingp. 55
Calibrationp. 56
Validationp. 56
Usep. 57
Checksp. 58
Recordingp. 58
Maintenancep. 59
Safetyp. 60
Decontaminationp. 60
Media preparatorp. 60
Specifications and calibrationp. 61
Calibrationp. 61
Validationp. 62
Usep. 62
Checksp. 62
Recordingp. 62
Maintenancep. 62
Safetyp. 63
Pressure cookerp. 63
Calibrationp. 63
Validationp. 63
Usep. 63
Checkp. 64
Recordingp. 64
Maintenancep. 64
Safetyp. 64
General remarksp. 65
Hot-air sterilizers (dry sterilization)p. 65
Specificationsp. 65
Calibrationp. 65
Usep. 66
Checksp. 66
Recordingp. 67
Maintenancep. 67
Safetyp. 67
Filter sterilizationp. 67
Specificationp. 68
Usep. 68
Checksp. 68
Recordingp. 69
Maintenancep. 69
Safetyp. 69
Membrane filtration apparatusp. 69
Specificationsp. 69
Calibrationp. 69
Usep. 70
Checksp. 70
Recordingp. 70
Safetyp. 70
Incubatorsp. 71
Specificationsp. 71
Calibrationp. 72
Validationp. 72
Usep. 72
Checksp. 73
Maintenancep. 73
Double jacket incubatorsp. 73
Specifications, calibration, validationp. 74
Maintenancep. 74
Water bathsp. 74
Specificationsp. 74
Calibrationp. 74
Validationp. 74
Usep. 75
Checksp. 75
Recordingp. 75
Maintenancep. 75
Microwavesp. 76
Thermometersp. 76
pH metersp. 77
Specificationsp. 77
Calibrationp. 77
Checksp. 77
Usep. 78
Maintenancep. 78
Balancesp. 78
Calibrationp. 79
Checksp. 79
Maintenancep. 79
Deionizing and distillation apparatusp. 80
Cold storagep. 80
Anaerobic incubationp. 81
Checksp. 82
Colony countersp. 82
Microscopesp. 82
ELISA plate readers and plate washersp. 83
Specificationp. 83
Checksp. 83
Safetyp. 83
List of equipment and technical specificationsp. 83
Materialsp. 87
Introductionp. 87
Sample bottles and containersp. 88
Sample bottle specificationsp. 88
Glass or plastic bottlesp. 89
Closuresp. 90
Plastic bagsp. 90
Neutralization of disinfectantsp. 90
Sterilization of bottlesp. 91
Quality control of sample bottlesp. 93
Laboratory glasswarep. 94
Specificationsp. 94
Cleaning proceduresp. 95
Quality controlp. 95
Pipettesp. 95
Glass pipettes and disposable plastic pipettesp. 95
Automatic pipettes and tipsp. 95
Accuracyp. 96
Sterilizationp. 96
Quality controlp. 96
Petri dishesp. 96
Capacity and specificationsp. 96
Sterilization and quality controlp. 97
Metal utensilsp. 97
Wire loops, needlesp. 97
Forceps and spatulasp. 97
Tubes and closuresp. 97
Dilution tubes (bottles)p. 97
Cultures tubes and other vials, caps and plugsp. 98
Membrane filtersp. 98
Physical, chemical and biological specificationsp. 98
Quality control for sterility of membrane filtersp. 99
Testing proceduresp. 99
Retentionp. 100
Total extractablesp. 100
Specific extractablesp. 100
Padsp. 100
Physical, chemical and biological specificationsp. 100
Testing proceduresp. 101
Deionized/distilled waterp. 101
Apparatusp. 101
Specificationsp. 102
Periodic checks of water qualityp. 102
Biological suitability test for waterp. 103
Culture media and chemicalsp. 103
Visual control and registrationp. 103
Storagep. 103
Bacteriological dyesp. 104
Antibioticsp. 104
Preparation and dispensingp. 104
pH measurementsp. 105
Quality control of prepared culture mediap. 105
Sterility testing of mediap. 106
Other tests: media for isolation or biochemical characterizationp. 106
Other tests for media intended for micro-organism enumerationp. 107
Referencesp. 108
Quantitative method and procedure assessmentp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Performance characteristics from a scientific and an operational point of viewp. 110
Target organismsp. 111
Method-defined parametersp. 112
Principles of microbiological measurements of water and foodp. 112
Enrichment in liquid mediap. 113
Colony countsp. 114
Microscopical methodsp. 115
Impedimetric methodsp. 116
Immunological methodsp. 116
DNA methodsp. 116
ATP measurementsp. 117
Turbidimetric methodsp. 117
Standardization and validationp. 118
Mathematical and technical characteristics of microbiological methodsp. 121
Accuracy of microbiological measurementsp. 123
Elements of truenessp. 124
Elements of precisionp. 127
Robustnessp. 130
Selective methodsp. 130
Numerical characterization of selective methodsp. 132
Comparison and validation of presence/absence testsp. 134
An MPN design for PA methodsp. 136
Quantitative expression and estimation of uncertainty in microbiological methodsp. 137
Biasp. 137
Imprecision: repeatability and reproducibility valuesp. 137
Alternatives for estimating the repeatability standard deviation (RSD)p. 139
Experimental designs for comparing colony count methodsp. 142
Method comparisons with unstressed samples or pure culturesp. 143
General design to detect inconsistent response to methods or procedures--two-way analysis of variance with replicationp. 144
Referencesp. 146
Analytical quality control in microbiologyp. 149
Introductionp. 149
First-line checksp. 151
General principlesp. 151
Blanksp. 154
Parallel platingp. 155
Colony counts on different volumes/dilutionsp. 161
Quantitative quality control samples for first-level quality control (pour-plates, spread-plates, membrane filtration)p. 166
Use of control chartsp. 168
Control of the MPN techniquep. 175
Confirmatory testsp. 176
Second-line checksp. 178
General principlesp. 178
Duplicate countingp. 178
Duplicate analytical procedurep. 183
Intensified quality control testsp. 185
Third-line checksp. 186
Referencesp. 187
Handling and reporting resultsp. 191
Introductionp. 191
Recording resultsp. 191
Further handling of resultsp. 193
Samples organized or requested internallyp. 193
Internal quality control samples (first-, second- or third-line checks)p. 193
External quality control samplesp. 194
Samples examined as part of a research programmep. 195
Samples submitted to the laboratoryp. 195
Routine surveillance samplesp. 196
Samples for statutory monitoringp. 200
Serial routine surveillance samplesp. 201
Non-routine samples (for pathogens, total or indicator organisms)p. 203
Examples of request forms and report formsp. 204
Referencesp. 204
Accreditationp. 221
Introductionp. 221
International aspects of accreditationp. 221
The European single marketp. 222
National accreditation organizationsp. 223
Accreditation requirementsp. 225
Achieving accreditationp. 227
Statistics for quality assurance in food and water microbiologyp. 229
Some basic calculationsp. 230
Some basic distributionsp. 235
Confidence intervalsp. 243
Statistical testsp. 247
Analysis of variancep. 251
Referencesp. 257
Appendices
Example of a membrane filter test, with statistical evaluationp. 259
Preparation of test sample for first-level quality control of plate and membrane filter countsp. 261
Subject indexp. 263
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780444502032
ISBN-10: 0444502033
Audience: General
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 284
Published: 2nd February 1999
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.52
Weight (kg): 0.41
Edition Number: 2