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MEMS : A Practical Guide to Design, Analysis and Applications - Jan G. Korvink

MEMS

A Practical Guide to Design, Analysis and Applications

Hardcover

Published: 31st December 2006
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Does MEMS technology offer advantages to your company's products? Will miniature machines on a chip solve your application objectives for osmaller, better, cheaper, and faster'oe If you are a product development engineer or manager, the decision to design a MEMS device implies having an application and market. This book offers you a practical guide to making this important business decision. Here, both veterans and newcomers to MEMS device design will get advice on evaluating MEMS for their business, followed by guidance on selecting solutions, technologies and design support tools. You will see how experts from around the world have explored MEMS possibilities and achieved new breakthrough devices such as RF-MEMS for mobile telecommunications, micro-optics for internet hardware, catheter-based minimal-invasive operating theatre tools, and in vivo monitoring of exact dosage of medication in ailing patients. This handbook offers a wealth of analytical techniques treating problematic areas such as alternative designs reliability, packaging, and cost effectiveness.

"The editors have done an excellent job in providing a handbook that will help companies maintain their competitive advantage now and into the future. u Wolfgang Menz, The Albert Ludwig University

Forewordp. xvii
Prefacep. xix
Microtransducer Operationp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Transductionp. 2
Signal Domainsp. 2
Block Schematics of Transducersp. 6
Transduction Effectsp. 12
Microsystem Performancep. 13
Figures of Meritp. 13
Sensitivity, Selectivity, and Offsetp. 18
Noisep. 21
Transducer Operation Techniquesp. 26
Calibrationp. 26
Compensationp. 28
Stabilizationp. 36
Multiple Measurementsp. 38
Circuitryp. 42
Powering Microsystemsp. 44
Local Energy Storagep. 44
Miniaturized Fuel Cellsp. 45
Optical and Electromagnetic Energy Transmissionp. 46
Energy Harvestingp. 47
Referencesp. 48
Material Properties: Measurement and Datap. 53
Introductionp. 53
Measurement Methodsp. 55
Internal Stress ([sigma])p. 55
Young's Modulus (E)p. 58
Poisson's Ratiop. 61
Yield Strength and Fracture Strengthp. 62
Fracture Toughnessp. 68
Fatiguep. 69
Thermal Conductivity and Specific Heatp. 70
Datap. 74
Sip. 74
Poly-Sip. 75
Metalp. 82
Dielectricsp. 84
Referencesp. 87
MEMS and NEMS Simulationp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Simulation Scenariop. 93
Generic Organization of a Computational Toolp. 101
Graphical User Interface or Front Endp. 101
Input Files and Parsingp. 102
Preprocessingp. 102
Solvingp. 103
Post-Processing and Program Interfacingp. 109
Methods for Materials Simulationp. 111
Computational Methods that Solve PDEsp. 122
Design Automation Methodsp. 138
Case Studiesp. 159
Summaryp. 180
Acknowledgmentsp. 182
Referencesp. 182
System-Level Simulation of Microsystemsp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Behavioral Modeling of MEMS Componentsp. 193
Micromechanical Platesp. 193
Micromechanical Flexuresp. 195
Electrostatic Gapsp. 199
Reduced-Order Modelingp. 205
Formulation of Equations of Motionp. 209
Structured Design Toolsp. 215
Signal-Flow Simulationsp. 216
Conservative Network Simulationsp. 216
Analog Hardware Description Languagesp. 218
A Structured MEMS Methodologyp. 220
Conclusionsp. 224
Referencesp. 224
Thermal-Based Microsensorsp. 229
Introductionp. 229
Thermoresistorsp. 230
Metal Film Thermoresistorsp. 230
Semiconducting Thermoresistorsp. 232
Silicon Spreading Resistance Temperature Sensorp. 234
Thermoresistors for the Detection of Thermal Radiationp. 235
Pellistorsp. 238
Silicon Diodes and Transistors as Thermal Microsensorsp. 240
Thermoelectric Microsensorsp. 243
Microthermopiles as IR Radiation Detectorsp. 250
Thermopile Arraysp. 251
Thermoelectric Vacuum Microsensorsp. 255
Gas Flow Microsensorsp. 257
AC/DC Thermoconverterp. 258
Heat Flux Sensorsp. 259
Microelectromechanical Thermoelectric Coolerp. 262
CMOS-Compatible Thermal-Based Microsensors and Microactuatorsp. 266
Diagnostic Thermal-Based Microstructuresp. 273
Thermoelectric Microtips for AFM Temperature Sensorsp. 273
Diagnostic Microstructures for the Investigation of Thermal Properties of Thin Filmsp. 275
Conclusionp. 276
Referencesp. 276
Photon Detectorsp. 281
Introductionp. 281
Detectorsp. 284
Mo/a-Si:H Schottky Diode X-Ray Image Sensorsp. 284
ITO/a-Si:H Schottky Diode Optical Image Sensorsp. 289
ITO/p-i-n Optical Image Sensorsp. 293
Thin-Film Transistorsp. 296
TFT Structures and Operationp. 296
Threshold Voltage (VT) Metastabilityp. 299
Pixel Integrationp. 308
Imaging Arraysp. 314
Conventional Passive Pixel Sensor Arraysp. 314
Amorphous Silicon Current-Mediated Active Pixel Sensor Arraysp. 320
Amorphous Silicon Voltage-Mediated Active Pixel Sensor Arraysp. 324
Integrated Amorphous Silicon Multiplexers for Imaging Arraysp. 331
New Challenges in Large-Area Digital Imagingp. 334
Referencesp. 338
Free-Space Optical MEMSp. 345
Introductionp. 345
General Discussion of Micromirror Scannersp. 346
Electrostatic Scannersp. 349
Scanners with Electrostatic Parallel-Plate Actuatorsp. 351
Electrostatic Vertical Comb-Drive Scannersp. 356
Scanning Mirrors with Magnetic and Electromagnetic Actuatorsp. 361
Micromirror Arrays with Mirror Size [less than or equal] 100 Micrometersp. 364
Micromirrors for Dynamic Spectral Equalizersp. 370
2-D MEMS Optical Switchesp. 370
Switch Configuration, Requirements, and Expendabilityp. 370
Vertical Chopper-Type Switchp. 376
Switch with Pop-Up Mirrorsp. 380
2 x 2 Switchesp. 383
Optical Attenuator Arrayp. 386
Tunable WDM Devicesp. 388
Tunable Filtersp. 388
Tunable Lasers and Detectorsp. 390
Diffractive Optical MEMSp. 390
Summaryp. 394
Acknowledgmentp. 394
Referencesp. 394
Integrated Micro-Opticsp. 403
Introductionp. 403
Definitionsp. 403
Componentsp. 403
Summaryp. 404
Guided Wavesp. 405
Reflections at Boundariesp. 405
Ray-Optic Modelp. 409
Modes and Propagationp. 413
Electromagnetic Modelp. 416
Confinement Factorp. 418
Solving a Waveguidep. 420
Stripe Waveguidesp. 421
Stripe Waveguide Structuresp. 422
Stripe Waveguide Modelingp. 426
Input/Output Couplingp. 429
End-Fire Couplingp. 430
Butt Couplingp. 431
Numerical Aperturep. 432
Tapersp. 433
Waveguide Characterizationp. 434
Modesp. 434
Lossesp. 435
Integrated Optical Devicesp. 438
Couplersp. 438
Interferometersp. 441
Active Optical Devicesp. 444
Materialsp. 445
Siliconp. 446
GaAsp. 446
Glassp. 447
Plasticsp. 448
Applicationsp. 448
Application Example: Monolithic Displacement Sensorsp. 448
Referencesp. 450
Microsensors for Magnetic Fieldsp. 453
Introductionp. 453
Magnetic Fields for Different Applicationsp. 453
Methods for Sensing and Applications of Magnetic Fieldsp. 454
(Micro) Sensors for a Magnetic Fieldp. 456
Main Figures of Merit of Magnetic Microsensorsp. 457
Classification of Magnetic Sensors: Figures of Meritp. 457
Characteristics Related to OUT(B)[subscript C]p. 457
Characteristics Related to OUT(C)[subscript B]p. 462
Characteristics Related to the SDp. 463
Hall Microsensorsp. 463
The Lorentz Forcep. 463
Hall Effectp. 464
Hall Effect as Sensor Actionp. 464
Hall Voltage Mode of Operationp. 466
Hall Current Mode of Operationp. 470
Diode Hall Effectp. 471
Hall Effect Devicesp. 471
Magnetoresistorsp. 478
Physical Magnetoresistance Effectp. 481
Geometrical Magnetoresistance Effectp. 481
Semiconductor Magnetoresistorsp. 482
Spin-Dependent Magnetoresistancep. 483
GMR Sensorsp. 484
Magnetodiodesp. 484
Magnetoconcentration and Magnetodiode Effectsp. 484
Magnetodiode Microsensorsp. 485
Magnetotransistors and Related Microsensorsp. 488
General Approach to Bipolar Magnetotransistor Designp. 488
Principles of BMT Operationp. 490
BMT Microsensorsp. 491
Sensors Related to the BMTsp. 494
Magnetic Field-based Functional Multisensorsp. 495
Functional Approach to Multisensorsp. 495
Linear Multisensors for Magnetic Field and Temperaturep. 495
Linear Multisensor for Magnetic Field, Temperature, and Lightp. 498
Functional Gradiometer Microsensorsp. 499
2-D and 3-D Vector Microsystems for Magnetic Fieldsp. 500
Interfaces and Improvement of Characteristics of Magnetic Microsensorsp. 502
Biasing Circuits and Signal Processing Electronicsp. 502
Improvement of Magnetosensor Characteristicsp. 507
Magnetic Systems for Contactless Measurementsp. 512
Conclusions and Outlookp. 514
Referencesp. 516
Mechanical Microsensorsp. 523
Introductionp. 523
Automotivep. 524
Computers and Peripheralsp. 525
Consumer Productsp. 525
Medical and Biological Applicationsp. 526
Inertial Sensorsp. 527
Accelerometersp. 528
Yaw-Rate Sensorsp. 539
Pressure Sensorsp. 550
Fundamentalsp. 550
Bulk-Micromachined Pressure Sensorsp. 551
Surface-Micromachined Pressure Sensorsp. 553
Signal Generationp. 554
Force and Torque Sensorsp. 560
Linking the Macro World to the Micro Worldp. 561
Fabrication, Protection, Test, and Calibrationp. 561
Conclusionsp. 563
Referencesp. 563
Semiconductor-Based Chemical Microsensorsp. 567
Introductionp. 567
Thermodynamics of Chemical Sensingp. 574
Chemomechanical Sensorsp. 580
Rayleigh SAW Devicesp. 583
Flexural-Plate-Wave or Lamb-Wave Devicesp. 586
Resonating Cantileversp. 589
Thermal Sensorsp. 591
Catalytic Thermal Sensors (Pellistors)p. 592
Thermoelectric or Seebeck-effect Sensorsp. 595
Optical Sensorsp. 598
Integrated Opticsp. 603
Microspectrometersp. 608
Bioluminescent Bioreporter Integrated Circuitsp. 611
Surface Plasmon Resonance Devicesp. 613
Electrochemical Sensorsp. 615
Voltammetric Sensorsp. 617
Potentiometric Sensorsp. 622
Conductometric Sensorsp. 636
Combinations of Electrochemical Principlesp. 646
Acknowledgmentsp. 648
Referencesp. 648
Microfluidicsp. 667
Introductionp. 667
Properties of Fluidsp. 670
Volumes and Length Scalesp. 670
Mixturesp. 671
Physical Propertiesp. 672
Vapor Pressurep. 673
Surface Tensionp. 673
Electrical Propertiesp. 674
Optical Propertiesp. 674
Transport Phenomenap. 675
Physics of Microfluidic Systemsp. 678
Navier-Stokes Equationsp. 678
Laminar Flowp. 679
Dynamic Pressurep. 680
Fluidic Networksp. 682
Heat Transferp. 683
Interfacial Surface Tensionp. 685
Electrokineticsp. 686
Fabrication Technologiesp. 689
Siliconp. 690
Plasticsp. 692
Quartzp. 694
Glassp. 695
Flow Controlp. 696
Check Valvesp. 697
Capillary Breaksp. 698
Active Microvalvesp. 699
Micropumpsp. 702
Microdisplacement Pumpsp. 702
Charge-Induced Pumping Mechanismsp. 703
Other Pumping Mechanismsp. 703
Sensorsp. 703
Flow Sensorsp. 704
Chemical Sensorsp. 706
Pipettes and Dispensersp. 707
Pipettesp. 707
Dispensersp. 708
Microarraysp. 709
Conceptp. 709
Fabricationp. 710
Particle-Based Microarray Conceptsp. 712
Microreactorsp. 713
Micromixersp. 713
Heat Exchangersp. 714
Chemical Reactorsp. 715
Microanalytical Chipsp. 715
Lab-on-a-Chip Systemsp. 715
Chip-Based Capillary Electrophoresisp. 716
Referencesp. 717
Biomedical Systemsp. 729
Introduction and Overviewp. 729
Materials and Fabrication Techniquesp. 730
Material Requirementsp. 730
Fabrication Techniquesp. 733
Surgical Systemsp. 735
Sensorsp. 738
Motion Controlp. 738
Microinstrumentsp. 739
Tissue Repairp. 739
Therapeutic Systemsp. 742
Implantable Delivery Systemsp. 743
Mechanical Delivery Systemsp. 744
Summaryp. 745
Referencesp. 746
Microactuatorsp. 751
Introductionp. 751
Actuators: Transducers with Mechanical Outputp. 752
Transduction Mechanismsp. 752
Scaling Advantages and Issuesp. 753
Electrical Microactuatorsp. 754
Electrostatic Forcesp. 755
Electrostatic Systemsp. 755
Forces in Electrostatic Systemsp. 759
Scaling Propertiesp. 760
Electrostatic Microactuator Configurationsp. 765
Gap-Closing Electrostatic Microactuatorsp. 766
Examples of Gap-Closing Electrostatic Microactuatorsp. 770
Constant-Gap Electrostatic Microactuatorsp. 778
Examples of Constant-Gap Electrostatic Microactuatorsp. 780
Hybrid Electrostatic Microactuatorsp. 785
Electrostatic Inductionp. 786
Issues and Challengesp. 787
Piezoelectric Microactuatorsp. 787
Piezoelectric Energy Densityp. 789
Piezoelectric Microactuator Configurationsp. 790
Piezoelectric Microactuator Design Issuesp. 795
Electrostriction, Electrets, and Electrorheological Fluidsp. 797
Referencesp. 797
Micromachining Technologyp. 805
Introductionp. 805
Bulk Micromachiningp. 805
Wet Etchingp. 806
High-Aspect-Ratio Micromachiningp. 816
Surface Micromachiningp. 824
Basic Process Sequencep. 824
Materials and Etchingp. 825
Epi-Micromachiningp. 829
SIMPLEp. 829
SCREAMp. 830
Black Siliconp. 831
MELOp. 832
Porous Siliconp. 833
SIMOXp. 834
Epi-Polyp. 835
Release and Stictionp. 836
IC Compatibility Issuesp. 837
Compatible Bulk Micromachiningp. 837
Compatible Surface Micromachiningp. 840
Compatible Epi-Micromachiningp. 844
Conclusionsp. 844
Referencesp. 845
LIGA Technology for R&D and Industrial Applicationsp. 853
Introductionp. 853
The LIGA Processp. 854
Mask Makingp. 857
Deep X-Ray Lithographyp. 859
Electroplating and Micromoldingp. 862
Sacrificial Layer Techniquep. 865
UV-LIGA Based on UV Lithographyp. 867
Application in Modular Micro-Optical Systemsp. 867
Definition of a Modular Micro-Optical Systemp. 867
Multifiber Connector from Polymerp. 869
Heterodyne Receiverp. 871
Spectrometerp. 874
Distance Sensorp. 874
Optical Cross-Connect with Rotating Mirrorsp. 876
Oscillating Modulator for Infrared Lightp. 876
Laser Scanner for Barcode Reading Actuated by Electromagneticsp. 879
FTIR Spectrometer for Infrared Lightp. 881
Ultra-High X-Ray Lenses in SU8p. 884
Mechanical Applicationsp. 885
Cycloid Gear Systemp. 885
LIGA Gyroscopep. 889
Microturbines for Cardiac Cathetersp. 891
Watch Pieces Made by UV-LIGAp. 891
Outlookp. 895
Acknowledgmentsp. 896
Referencesp. 897
Interface Circuitry and Microsystemsp. 901
Introductionp. 901
Microsensor Systemsp. 902
Microsensor System Applicationsp. 905
Automotive Sensorsp. 907
Biomedical Sensorsp. 908
Sensors for Household Appliances, Building Control, and Industrial Controlp. 908
Environmental Sensorsp. 909
Interface Circuit Architecturep. 909
Requirements and Specificationsp. 910
Analog Front-Endp. 912
Voltage Outputp. 912
Current or Charge Outputp. 916
Impedance Variationp. 918
A/D Converterp. 921
Digital Processing and Output Interfacep. 931
Digital Signal Processingp. 931
Wired Output Interfacesp. 931
Wireless Output Interfacesp. 933
Conclusionsp. 934
Referencesp. 934
Contributorsp. 943
Indexp. 945
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780815514978
ISBN-10: 0815514972
Series: Microelectromechanical Systems
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 925
Published: 31st December 2006
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 16.36  x 4.27
Weight (kg): 1.4