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Mechanical Microsensors : Microtechnology and Mems - M. Elwenspoek

Mechanical Microsensors

Microtechnology and Mems

Hardcover Published: 27th November 2000
ISBN: 9783540675822
Number Of Pages: 295

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This book on mechanical microsensors is based on a course organized by the Swiss Foundation for Research in Microtechnology (FSRM) in Neuchatel, Swit- zerland, and developed and taught by the authors. Support by FSRM is herewith gratefully acknowledged. This book attempts to serve two purposes. First it gives an overview on me- chanical microsensors (sensors for pressure, force, acceleration, angular rate and fluid flow, realized by silicon micromachining). Second, it serves as a textbook for engineers to give them a comprehensive introduction on the basic design issues of these sensors. Engineers active in sensor design are usually educated either in electrical engineering or mechanical engineering. These classical educa- tional pro grams do not prepare the engineer for the challenging task of sensor design since sensors are instruments typically bridging the disciplines: one needs a rather deep understanding of both mechanics and electronics. Accordingly, the book contains discussion of the basic engineering sciences relevant to mechanical sensors, hopefully in a way that it is accessible for all colours of engineers. Engi- rd th neering students in their 3 or 4 year should have enough knowledge to be able to follow the arguments presented in this book. In this sense, this book should be useful as textbook for students in courses on mechanical microsensors (as is CUf- rently being done at the University ofTwente).

Industry Reviews

"Mechanical Microsensors provides a comprehensive description of the various design techniques required for silicon micromachining of sensors. This is a very well written book which has a pleasant balance of mathematical, physics and engineering principles, that make this book suitable for physicists, chemistry, electrical and mechanical engineers."

--SENSOR REVIEW

"Of particular value is the fact that the authors go further than the description of the silicon sensor elements and also present solutions on how to interface these sensors to the surrounding world - electronically in the chapter on 'Electronic Interfacing' as well as physically in the chapter on 'Packaging'. To summarize, this textbook gives a comprehensive overview of mechanical microsensors which is especially well suited for students in courses on mechanical microsensors, but is also valuable for people in research and industry with an interest in this exciting and growing field."

-MEASUREMENT SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Introductionp. 1
MEMSp. 5
Miniaturisation and Systemsp. 5
Examples for MEMSp. 6
Bubble Jetp. 7
Actuatorsp. 9
Micropumpsp. 10
Small and Large: Scalingp. 13
Electromagnetic Forcesp. 13
Coulomb Frictionp. 16
Mechanical Strengthp. 16
Dynamic Propertiesp. 17
Available Fabrication Technologyp. 20
Technologies Based on Lithographyp. 20
Silicon Micromachiningp. 21
LIGAp. 22
Miniaturisation of Conventional Technologiesp. 23
Introduction into Silicon Micromachiningp. 24
Photolithographyp. 24
Thin Film Deposition and Dopingp. 25
Silicon Dioxidep. 26
Chemical Vapour Depositionp. 27
Evaporationp. 29
Sputterdepositionp. 31
Dopingp. 31
Wet Chemical Etchingp. 32
Isotropic Etchingp. 32
Anisotropic Etchingp. 34
Etch Stopp. 36
Waferbondingp. 40
Anodic Bondingp. 41
Silicon Fusion Bondingp. 43
Plasma Etchingp. 45
Plasmap. 45
Anisotropic Plasma Etching Modesp. 47
Configurationsp. 48
Black Silicon Methodp. 53
Surface Micromachiningp. 55
Thin Film Stressp. 56
Stickingp. 57
Mechanics of Membranes and Beamsp. 59
Dynamics of the Mass Spring Systemp. 59
Stringsp. 63
Beamsp. 65
Stress and Strainp. 65
Bending Energyp. 66
Radius of Curvaturep. 67
Lagrange Function of a Flexible Beamp. 70
Differential Equation for Beamsp. 70
Boundary Conditions for Beamsp. 72
Examplesp. 73
Mechanical Stabilityp. 75
Transversal Vibration of Beamsp. 77
Diaphragms and Membranesp. 80
Circular Diaphragmsp. 80
Square Membranesp. 82
Buckling of Bridgesp. 84
Principles of Measuring Mechanical Quantities: Transduction of Deformationp. 85
Metal Strain Gaugesp. 85
Semiconductor Strain Gaugesp. 86
Piezoresistive Effect in Single Crystalline Siliconp. 87
Piezoresistive Effect in Polysilicon Thin Filmsp. 88
Transduction from Deformation to Resistancep. 89
Capacitive Transducersp. 90
Electromechanicsp. 90
Diaphragm Pressure Sensorsp. 94
Force and Pressure Sensorsp. 97
Force Sensorsp. 98
Load Cellsp. 101
Pressure Sensorsp. 106
Piezoresistive Pressure Sensorsp. 107
Capacitive Pressure Sensorsp. 112
Force Compensation Pressure Sensorsp. 119
Resonant Pressure Sensorsp. 121
Miniature Microphonesp. 126
Tactile Imaging Arraysp. 130
Acceleration and Angular Rate Sensorsp. 132
Acceleration Sensorsp. 133
Introductionp. 133
Bulk Micromachined Accelerometersp. 134
Surface Micromachined Accelerometersp. 138
Force Feedbackp. 143
Angular Rate Sensorsp. 145
Flow sensorsp. 153
The Laminar Boundary Layerp. 153
The Navier-Stokes Equationsp. 153
Heat Transportp. 157
Hydrodynamic Boundary Layerp. 158
Thermal Boundary Layerp. 163
Skin Friction and Heat Transferp. 166
Heat Transport in the Limit of Very Small Reynolds Numbersp. 168
Thermal Flow Sensorsp. 173
Anemometer Type Flow Sensorsp. 174
Two-Wire Anemometersp. 181
Calorimetric Type Flow Sensorsp. 183
Sound Intensity Sensors - The Microflownp. 188
Time of Flight Sensorsp. 194
Skin Friction Sensorsp. 195
"Dry Fluid Flow" Sensorsp. 200
"Wet Fluid Flow" Sensorsp. 205
Resonant Sensorsp. 209
Basic Principles and Physicsp. 209
Introductionp. 209
The Differential Equation of a Prismatic Microbridgep. 211
Solving the Homogeneous, Undamped Problem using Laplace Transformsp. 212
Solving the Inhomogeneous Problem by Modal Analysisp. 215
Response to Axial Loadsp. 217
Quality Factorp. 219
Nonlinear Large-Amplitude Effectsp. 220
Excitation and Detection Mechanismsp. 222
Electrostatic Excitation and Capacitive Detectionp. 223
Magnetic Excitation and Detectionp. 223
Piezoelectric Excitation and Detectionp. 223
Electrothermal Excitation and Piezoresistive Detectionp. 224
Optothermal Excitation and Optical Detectionp. 224
Dielectric Excitation and Detectionp. 225
Examples and Applicationsp. 225
Electronic Interfacingp. 229
Piezoresistive Sensorsp. 230
Wheatstone Bridge Configurationsp. 230
Amplification of the Bridge Output Voltagep. 233
Noise and Offsetp. 235
Feedback Control Loopsp. 236
Interfacing with Digital Systemsp. 237
Analog-to-Digital Conversionp. 237
Voltage to Frequency Convertersp. 240
Capacitive Sensorsp. 240
Impedance Bridgesp. 241
Capacitance Controlled Oscillatorsp. 245
Resonant Sensorsp. 248
Frequency Dependent Behavior of Resonant Sensorsp. 248
Realizing an Oscillatorp. 249
One-Port Versus Two-Port Resonatorsp. 251
Oscillator Based on One-Port Electrostatically Driven Beam Resonatorp. 251
Oscillator Based on Two-Port Electrodynamically Driven H-shaped Resonatorp. 257
Packagingp. 259
Packaging Techniquesp. 260
Standard Packagesp. 260
Chip Mounting Methodsp. 262
Wafer Level Packagingp. 263
Interconnection Techniquesp. 265
Multichip Modulesp. 267
Encapsulation Processesp. 269
Stress Reductionp. 269
Pressure Sensorsp. 270
Inertial Sensorsp. 272
Thermal Flow Sensorsp. 272
Referencesp. 274
Indexp. 291
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540675822
ISBN-10: 3540675825
Series: Microtechnology and Mems
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 295
Published: 27th November 2000
Publisher: SPRINGER VERLAG GMBH
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.61

Earn 587 Qantas Points
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