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Mechanical Design in Organisms - Stephen Andrew Wainwright

Mechanical Design in Organisms

Paperback Published: 21st July 1982
ISBN: 9780691083087
Number Of Pages: 436

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This book deals with an interface between mechanical engineering and biology. Available for the first time in paperback, it reviews biological structural materials and systems and their mechanically important features and demonstrates that function at any particular level of biological integration is permitted and controlled by structure at lower levels of integration.

Five chapters discuss the properties of materials in general and those of biomaterials in particular. The authors examine the design of skeletal elements and discuss animal and plant systems in terms of mechanical design. In a concluding chapter they investigate organisms in their environments and the insights gained from study of the mechanical aspects of their lives.

Industry Reviews

"One of the most useful and important books I have reviewed. The designer of a bridge needs to know the strength of his steel or concrete and he needs to know how forces are transmitted through structures... A biologist studying an animal or plant structure cannot understand it fully without the same sort of knowledge."--The Quarterly Review of Biology

Prefacep. v
Acknowledgementp. vi
List of symbolsp. xii
Introductionp. 1
Materialsp. 5
Principles of the strength of materials: Phenomenological descriptionp. 6
Introductionp. 6
Stress and Strainp. 7
Linear Elasticityp. 8
The Elastic Modulip. 9
Poisson's Ratiop. 11
Elastic Resilience--Stored Energyp. 12
Elastic Stress Concentrationsp. 15
Fracture of Linearly Elastic Solidsp. 18
Summary of Properties of Linearly Elastic Solidsp. 22
Viscosity and Relaxationp. 23
Linear Viscoelasticityp. 25
Creep and Stress Relaxationp. 27
Effect of Temperaturep. 29
The Glass Transitionp. 30
Dynamic Behaviourp. 31
Viscoelastic Modelsp. 33
Retardation and Relaxation Spectrap. 36
Fracture of Viscoelastic Materialsp. 39
Generalization of the Griffith Theory of Fracturep. 41
Summary of Properties of Viscoelastic Materialsp. 43
Principles of the strength of materials: Molecular interpretationp. 45
Introductionp. 45
Thermodynamics of Mechanical Deformationp. 45
Linear Elasticityp. 47
The Structure of Polymersp. 50
Statistics of a Polymer Chainp. 51
Rubber Elasticityp. 54
Molecular Interpretations of Rubbery Polymersp. 57
Molecular Structure and the Master Curvep. 60
Tensile materialsp. 64
Introduction to Crystalline Polymersp. 64
Factors Affecting Crystallinity in Polymersp. 64
The Structure of Polymer Crystalsp. 67
Mechanical Properties of Crystalline Polymersp. 71
Silkp. 73
The Structure of Parallel-[beta] Silksp. 73
The Mechanical Properties of Silksp. 77
Other Types of Silkp. 80
Collagenp. 81
The Structure of Collagenp. 82
Mechanical Properties of Collagen Fibresp. 88
Cellulosep. 94
The Structure of Cellulosep. 95
Mechanical Properties of Cellulose Fibresp. 99
Chitinp. 104
The Structure of Chitinp. 105
Mechanical Properties of Chitin Fibresp. 107
Pliant materialsp. 110
Introductionp. 110
The Protein Rubbersp. 110
Resilinp. 111
Abductinp. 114
Elastinp. 116
The Mucopolysaccharidesp. 119
Pliant Compositesp. 123
Fibre Patterns in Pliant Compositesp. 124
The Role of the Amorphous Phasep. 126
Mesogleap. 127
Uterine Cervixp. 130
Skinp. 132
Arterial Wallp. 134
Cartilagep. 138
Mechanical Properties of Cartilagep. 141
Rigid materialsp. 144
Introductionp. 144
Limiting Behaviour of Composite Materialsp. 144
Elastic Fibres in a Matrixp. 147
Discontinuous Fibresp. 149
Effect of Fibre Orientationp. 150
Compression of Composite Materialsp. 153
Fracture of Composite Materialsp. 154
Voidsp. 157
Structure of Arthropod Cuticlep. 159
Mechanical Properties of Arthropod Cuticlep. 164
Structure of Bonep. 169
Mechanical Properties of Bonep. 174
Main Features of Behaviour in Relation to Structurep. 175
Anisotropic Behaviour of Bonep. 180
Stress Concentrations in Bonep. 181
The Effect of Mineralization on Bonep. 183
Fatigue in Bonep. 184
Adaptive Growth and Reconstruction in Bonep. 185
Keratinp. 187
Gorgonin and Antipathinp. 191
Structure of the Plant Cell Wallp. 194
Cell Wall Structure in Nitellap. 196
The Tracheidp. 196
Mechanical Properties of Cell Wallsp. 198
Structure of Woodp. 202
Mechanical Properties of Woodp. 203
Stony Materialsp. 207
Poriferap. 207
Cnidariap. 210
Molluscap. 211
Brachiopodap. 214
Arthropodap. 216
Echinodermatap. 216
Birds' Eggshellsp. 218
Spicules: Mechanical Considerationsp. 219
Teethp. 221
Mechanical Properties of Stony Materialsp. 224
Grain Sizep. 225
Porosityp. 227
The Function of the Organic Matrixp. 229
Stony Skeletons with Many Holesp. 233
Rigid Skeletal Materials: some Final Remarksp. 234
Structural Elements and Systemsp. 241
Elements of structural systemsp. 243
Introductionp. 243
Bendingp. 244
Compression and Bucklingp. 249
Torsionp. 253
Cross-Sectional Shapep. 254
Shellsp. 261
Materials for Minimum Weightp. 264
Principles of Structural Optimizationp. 268
The Failure of Elements (and Shells)p. 269
Jointsp. 275
Degrees of Freedomp. 275
Forces and Directionsp. 277
Flexible Jointsp. 278
Sliding Jointsp. 279
Adaptation of Shapep. 280
Adaptation of Materialp. 283
Support in organismsp. 287
Introduction to Rigid and Flexible Systemsp. 287
The Optimization of Space Framesp. 289
Fibre-wound Cylinders as Reinforced Membrane Sytemsp. 293
Design Principles for Biological Structural Systemsp. 297
Real Organisms: An Overviewp. 299
Symmetryp. 299
Reaction to Forcep. 299
Fluid Support Systems in Plants and Animalsp. 302
High-Pressure Wormsp. 302
Low-Pressure Wormsp. 304
Open, Extensible Cylinders: Sea Anemonesp. 306
Hydra and Other Polypsp. 308
Medusaep. 310
Tube Feetp. 313
Metamerismp. 316
On Being Surrounded by Airp. 318
Wilting Plantsp. 318
Woody Plantsp. 320
Reaction Woodp. 321
Fibre-reinforced Palm Treesp. 324
The Hydrostatic Onychophorap. 325
Jointed Frameworks of Solid Materialsp. 327
Running and Burrowing Myriapodsp. 327
Insectsp. 332
Complex Support Systems: Molluscs and Echinodermsp. 333
Squid Locomotionp. 334
Backbonesp. 337
Stressed Tissuesp. 339
Safety Factorsp. 340
Ecomechanicsp. 345
Ecological mechanicsp. 347
Introductionp. 347
The Stressful Environmentp. 348
Adaptations to Gravity (Mass)p. 348
Adaptations to Velocity of Flow (Strength and Rigidity)p. 349
Rigid Stony Coralsp. 349
Compliant and Tensile Grasses, Seaweeds and Spider Websp. 349
Drag Control in Air: Treesp. 355
Drag Control in Water: Passive Suspension Feedersp. 355
Adaptations to Direction of Flow (Anisotropy)p. 358
Adaptations to Duration and Frequency of Flow (Stress Rate and Fatigue)p. 364
Meiofauna and the Stormy Intersticesp. 364
Active Suspension Feedersp. 365
The Informative Environmentp. 365
Chemical Informationp. 365
Thermal Informationp. 365
Rheological Informationp. 367
The Next Few Yearsp. 367
References--Author Indexp. 369
Subject Indexp. 395
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780691083087
ISBN-10: 0691083088
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 436
Published: 21st July 1982
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.37 x 15.62  x 2.79
Weight (kg): 0.63