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Measurements of Optical Fibres and Devices : Theory and Experiments - Umberto Ravaioli

Measurements of Optical Fibres and Devices

Theory and Experiments

Hardcover

Published: 19th December 1984
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Light Propagation in Ideal Multimode Fibers
Outline of the Electromagnetic Modelp. 1
General Considerationsp. 2
Exact Electromagnetic Theory of Round Step-Index Fibersp. 5
Approximate Evaluation of the Total Number of Guided Modesp. 7
WKB Approximate Solution for Graded-Index Fibersp. 8
The Ray-Optics Modelp. 11
Light Acceptance in Step Index Fibersp. 12
Correspondence between Modes and Raysp. 14
Light Acceptance in Graded-Index Fibersp. 17
General Ray-Optics in Inhomogeneous Mediap. 19
Constants of the Motionp. 22
Ray Tracingp. 24
Ray Domainp. 28
The Radiance Lawp. 29
Ray Distributionp. 32
Domain (r[subscript 1], theta[subscript 1])p. 34
Intermodal Time Dispersionp. 37
Time Dispersion in Step-Index Fibersp. 37
alpha-Profilesp. 42
WKB Approximation for [characters not producible]-Profilesp. 44
Effects of Leaky Modesp. 49
Ray-Optics Approach for [characters not producible]-Profilesp. 50
The rms Pulsewidthp. 55
Simplified Description of the Launching Conditionp. 57
Effects of the Launching Conditionp. 59
Effects of Profile Imperfectionsp. 62
Compensation Effect of Time Dispersion in Fiber Chainsp. 68
Intramodal Time Dispersionp. 69
Group Delays in the Presence of Material Dispersionp. 70
Effects of the Finite Extension of the Source Spectral Widthp. 72
Wavelength of Zero Material Dispersionp. 73
Total Time Dispersionp. 74
Optimum Index Profile in the Presence of Material Dispersionp. 76
Linear Profile Dispersionp. 78
Nonlinear Profile Dispersionp. 79
Real Fibers
Intrinsic Attenuationp. 85
Causes of Intrinsic Attenuationp. 86
Absorption Lossp. 87
Scattering Lossp. 91
Fiber Perturbationsp. 93
Kinds of Fiber Perturbationp. 95
Outline of the Electromagnetic Approach to the Study of Fiber Perturbationsp. 96
Ray-Optics Approach to Core Diameter Fluctuationsp. 98
Ray-Optics Approach to Microbendingp. 104
Optical Power Flow Equation in the Electromagnetic Modelp. 110
Optical Power Flow Equation in the Ray-Optics Modelp. 113
Solutions of the Optical Power Flow Equationp. 115
The Time-Dependent Equationp. 118
Transmission Properties of Perturbed Fibersp. 119
Exact Solution of the Time-Independent Equationp. 120
Perturbative Solutions of the Time-Dependent Equationp. 123
Evolution of the Attenuation Coefficient while Approaching Steady-Statep. 127
Evolution of the Baseband Response while Approaching Steady-Statep. 129
Optimization of the Cabling Processp. 133
Effects of Jointsp. 136
Splices and Connectorsp. 136
Exact Electromagnetic Model of a Connectorp. 137
Linear Model of a Connectorp. 141
Matricial Approach to the Study of Cascaded Fibersp. 142
Power Loss of a Connector between Two Unperturbed Fibersp. 144
Power Loss of a Connector between Two Perturbed Fibersp. 148
Outline of Connector Time Dispersion Propertiesp. 150
Transducers
Optical Sourcesp. 155
Collimated Beam Lasersp. 156
Top Emitting LEDsp. 159
Edge Emitting LEDsp. 163
Laser Diodesp. 165
Some Imperfections of the Laser Emissionp. 168
Laser Structuresp. 171
Spectral Properties of LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 173
Modulation Properties of LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 174
Photodetectorsp. 176
Review of the Existing Photodetectorsp. 178
Solar Cells and PIN Photodiodesp. 180
Avalanche Photodiodes (APD)p. 184
Some Considerations about the Noise of Photodiodesp. 186
Spectral Properties of Photodiodesp. 189
Modulation Properties of Photodiodesp. 191
Transmission Systems
Transmission Systems Based on Intensity Modulationp. 197
LED and Laser Driversp. 198
Types of Front Endsp. 201
Analog Receiversp. 204
Digital Receiversp. 205
Equalizationp. 207
Ultimate Limits of Transmission Capacity and Repeater Spacing for Intensity Modulation Systemsp. 210
Coherent Transmission Systemsp. 211
Advantages of Coherent Systems over Traditional Systemsp. 213
Main Problems of Practical Coherent Transmissionsp. 214
Scanning Masurements
Scanning Measurements on Fibersp. 217
Defraction Limitp. 218
Optical Arrangementsp. 219
Differential Mode Attenuation Measurementsp. 223
Differential Mode Delay Measurementsp. 224
Indirect Tests for Investigating Mode Coupling Effectsp. 225
Advantages of Domain (r[subscript 1], theta[subscript 1])p. 227
Scanning Measurements on Transducersp. 231
Scanning Measurements on LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 231
Scanning Measurements on Photodiodesp. 234
Measurements on Transducers
Integrated Measurementsp. 240
Electric Characterization of LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 241
Measurement of the Electro-Optical Transduction and Its Baseband Responsep. 244
Electric Characterization of Photodiodesp. 248
Measurements of the Responsivity and Its Baseband Responsep. 250
Reliability Tests on Laser Diodesp. 252
Differential Measurementsp. 253
Measurement of the Spectral Distribution of the Emitted Power in LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 254
Measurements of Near and Far Field Patterns in LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 257
Measurements of Spatial Relative Delays of Emission in LEDsp. 260
Theoretical Model of Radiation Confinement and Spatial Relative Delays of Emissionp. 262
Combined Spectral and Geometrical Differential Measurements in LEDs and Laser Diodesp. 268
Tests on the Spectral and Geometrical Dependence of the Responsivityp. 271
Index Profile Measurements
Fiber Profilingp. 277
Near Field Scanning Techniquep. 278
Refracted Near Field Techniquep. 282
Slice Interferometryp. 284
Reflection Methodp. 286
Transverse Interferometryp. 287
Transverse Focusing Techniquep. 290
Brief Review of Other Techniquesp. 291
Comparative Discussionp. 292
Preform Profilingp. 293
Techniques Also Employed for Fiber Profilingp. 295
Ray Tracing Methodp. 296
Comparison between the Fiber and Its Parent Preformp. 297
Geometrical Measurements
Measurements on the Fiber Cross Sectionp. 303
Direct Fiber End Face Inspectionp. 305
Near Field Techniquesp. 306
Outer Diameter Measurementsp. 309
Measurements of the Ellipticity of the Fiber Outer Surfacep. 312
Measurements of NAp. 313
Fiber Length Measurementsp. 314
Fiber Length Measurement by Backscatteringp. 315
Fiber Length Measurement by a Lock-in Amplifierp. 315
Attenuation Measurements
Review of the Existing Techniquesp. 320
The Cut-Back Techniquep. 321
The Backscattering Technique (OTDR)p. 326
Technological Measurementsp. 329
Measurements of Total Loss by Lateral Scattering Detectionp. 333
The Insertion Loss Measurementp. 334
Joint Loss Measurementsp. 334
On-Line Tests during Fiber Fabricationp. 337
Discussion on Cutbackp. 338
Beam Launchers and Mode Scramblersp. 338
Accuracy of Cutback Measurementsp. 341
Spectral Loss Measurementsp. 344
Measurements Performed by Varying the Launching Conditionp. 348
Discussion on Backscatteringp. 351
Launching Techniquesp. 351
Ray Distribution of the Backscattered Powerp. 354
Effects of Fluctuations in the Fiber Parametersp. 357
Measurements of Local Additional Lossesp. 360
Analysis of All Noise Sources in Backscattering Measurementsp. 362
Dynamic Range Limitationsp. 365
Accuracy of Backscattering Measurementsp. 368
Outline of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry (OFDR)p. 370
Differential Mode Attenuation Measurementsp. 371
DMA Measurements of Step Index Fibersp. 372
DMA Measurements of Graded Index Fibersp. 373
Discussion of the Accuracy of DMA Measurementsp. 376
Time Dispersion Measurements
General Considerationsp. 386
Extrapolation of the Experimental Results of Time Dispersion Measurementsp. 386
Measurements in the Time Domainp. 388
Measurements in the Frequency Domainp. 392
Measurements of Intermodal Time Dispersionp. 395
Material Dispersion Measurementsp. 397
Experimental Evaluation of Profile Dispersionp. 400
Discussion of the Measurements in the Time Domainp. 403
Main Causes of Uncertainty in Time Domain Measurementsp. 404
Use of a Lock-in Amplifier to Improve the SNRp. 409
Use of Pick-Up Procedure to Reduce the Overall Uncertaintyp. 410
Evaluation of the Effective Input Pulsep. 412
Discussion on the Measurements in the Frequency Domainp. 412
The Fiber Transfer Functionp. 413
Main Causes of Uncertainty in Frequency Domain Measurementsp. 415
A Method for Improving the Maximum Dynamic Rangep. 417
Evaluation of the Phase Response via a Hilbert Transformp. 418
Direct Measurement of the Phase Responsep. 419
Overall Accuracy of Frequency Domain Measurementsp. 422
Differential Mode Delay Measurementsp. 424
Purposes of a DMD Measurementp. 424
DMD Measurements on Step Index Fibersp. 429
DMD Measurements on Graded Index Fibersp. 432
Discussion of DMD Measurement Accuracyp. 432
Indirect Tests on Mode Coupling Effects
Tests Based on Amplitude Mode Power Distributionsp. 439
Measurements of Amplitude Mode Power Distributions under a Selective Excitationp. 440
Measurement of Amplitude Mode Power Distributions at the Steady-Statep. 442
Tests Based on Amplitude and Delay Mode Power Distributionsp. 443
Theorectial Model for the Measurement of the Mode-Dependent Attenuation and the Coupling Coefficientp. 443
Measurement of Mode-Dependent Attenuation and Coupling Coefficientp. 446
Theoretical Model for an Indirect Evaluation of the Fiber Baseband Response in the Presence of Mode Couplingp. 448
Measurement of the Fiber Baseband Response through an Indirect Test, in the Presence of Mode Couplingp. 452
Measurements of Monomode Fibers
Index Profile and Geometrical Measurements on Monomode Fibersp. 458
Index Profiling in Monomode Fibersp. 458
Cutoff Wavelength Measurementp. 460
Fundamental Mode Spot Size Measurementp. 464
Equivalent Step Index Profile Determinationp. 465
Measurements of Core-Cladding Concentricity and Core Ellipticity in Monomode Fibersp. 466
Measurements of NA in Monomode Fibersp. 467
Transmission Measurements of Monomode Fibersp. 468
Attenuation Measurements in Monomode Fibersp. 468
Time Dispersion Measurements in Monomode Fibersp. 470
Optical Instruments Frequently Used in Optical Fiber Measurements
Monochromatorsp. 475
Light Modulatorsp. 480
Microscope Objectivesp. 483
Optical Directional Couplersp. 484
Electric Instruments Frequently Used in Optical Fiber Measurements
Lock-in Amplifier and Light-Chopperp. 487
Boxcar Integratorp. 489
Fiber end Preparation
Fiber Cleaving Techniquep. 493
Fiber Break Angle Inspection Proceduresp. 495
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780890061336
ISBN-10: 0890061335
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 516
Published: 19th December 1984
Publisher: Artech House Publishers
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 3.3
Weight (kg): 0.93