After years of neglecting issues related to deterioration of concretes by sulfates, they are of renewed interest, primarily due to recent expensive litigation. New cases of sulfate-related damage, caused by ingress of sulfates into concrete and/or by improper concrete processing were reported in Australia, Canada, Finland, Germany, South Africa, the United States and elsewhere. This Special Volume of the Materials Science of Concrete contains ten invited presentations on the topic of sulfate attack caused by external sulfate sources. The discussions concentrate on chemical and physical mechanistic aspects of the applicable sulfate-to-paste reactions and on the inter-relationships between the internal (e.g., composition of aggressive medium, temperature and humidity, curing practices) variables. This volume also includes a discussion transcription from the meeting. Papers presented at the Sulfate Workshop, Quebec City, Canada, 1998.
Discussion of Presented Papers.
Sulfate Attack: An Overview (J.P. Skalny and J. Pierce).
Sulfate Attack in Concrete: Urgent Needs for Renewal in Concrete Research (G.M. Idorn).
The Role of Ettringite in External Sulfate Attack (P.W. Brown and H.F.W. Taylor).
Reactions Between Cement Paste Components and Sulfate Ions (F.P. Glasser).
Microstructural Alterations Associated with Sulfate Attack in Permeable Concretes (Sidney Diamond and R.J. Lee).
The U-Phase: Formulation and Stability (Micheline Moranville and Guanshu Li).
W/C Ratio, Porpsity, and Sulfate Attack: A Review (Nataliya Hearn and Francis Young).
A Note on the History of Type V Cement Development (Eugene D. Hill Jr.).
Modeling Microstructural Alterations of Concrete Subjected to External Sulfate Attack (J. Marchand, E. Samson and Y. Maltais)
Diffusivity-Porosity Relation for Cement Paste (E.J. Garboczi and D.P. Bentz).
Damage Assessment and Service Life Prediction of Concrete Subject to Sulfate Attack (J.W. Ju, L.S. Weng, S. Mindess, and A.J. Boyd).
Influence of Calcium Hydroxide Dissolution on the Engineering Properties of Cement-Based Materials (J. Marchand, J.J. Beaudoin, and M. Pigeon).
Sulfate Attack in a Marine Environment (P.K. Mehta).
Sulfate Attack in a Marine Environment (M.D.A. Thomas, R.F. Bleszynski, and C.E. Scott).
Field Studies of Sulfate Attack on Concrete (John Figg).
Long-Term Test of Concrete Resistance against Sulfate Attack (B. Lagerblad).
Standards for Evaluating the Susceptibility of Cement-Based Materials to External Sulfate Attack (J.R. Clifton, G. Frohnsdorff, and C. Ferraris).
Are Sulfate Resistance Standards Adequate? (R.D. Hooten).