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Mass Transport in Solids and Fluids : Cambridge Solid State Science - David S. Wilkinson

Mass Transport in Solids and Fluids

Cambridge Solid State Science

Paperback Published: 13th December 2000
ISBN: 9780521624947
Number Of Pages: 290

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The field of matter transport is central to understanding the processing of materials and their subsequent mechanical properties. While thermodynamics determines the final state of a material system, it is the kinetics of mass transport that governs how it gets there. This book gives a solid grounding in the principles of matter transport and their application to a range of engineering problems. The author develops a unified treatment of mass transport applicable to both solids and liquids. Traditionally matter transport in fluids is considered as an extension of heat transfer and can appear to have little relationship to diffusion in solids. This unified approach clearly makes the connection between these important fields. This book is aimed at advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students of materials science and engineering and related disciplines. It contains numerous worked examples and unsolved problems. The material can be covered in a one semester course.

Industry Reviews

'... with its good, flowing English (easy for students to understand), clear layout - especially of equations, and ample examples of real practical cases, this book has very few faults. I have no hesitation in recommending this book for use in UK universities as a course reference book. The book would also be useful for anybody, including relevant physicists and chemists. In addition to materials scientists and engineers, as a reference book in research, development and even day-to-day technical problem-solving tasks.' Dr Wei Sha, Materials World

Prefacep. xiii
Principal symbolsp. xv
Overviewp. 1
Introduction to mass transport mechanismsp. 3
Mass transport processesp. 3
Statement of Fick's First Lawp. 4
Mechanisms of diffusionp. 6
Diffusion in solidsp. 7
Interstitial diffusionp. 8
Vacancy diffusionp. 11
Diffusion in alloysp. 13
Diffusion in compoundsp. 14
Diffusion in liquidsp. 14
Diffusion in gasesp. 15
Diffusion datap. 17
Mass transport by convectionp. 19
Further readingp. 20
Problems to chapter 1p. 20
Solid-state diffusion in dilute alloysp. 23
Steady-state diffusionp. 25
Fick's First Lawp. 26
Applications to steady-state problemsp. 26
Measurement of the diffusion coefficientp. 26
Permeability of gases through a solidp. 29
Diffusion in parallel through a composite solidp. 35
Growth of surface layers--pseudo steady statep. 39
Growth of oxide filmsp. 39
Slip castingp. 43
Further readingp. 44
Problems to chapter 2p. 44
Transient diffusion problemsp. 47
Fick's Second Lawp. 47
Solutions to Fick's Second Lawp. 50
Introductionp. 50
Approaches to solving transient diffusion problemsp. 51
Solutions to Fick's Second Law at short time (far from equilibrium)p. 54
Plane initial sourcep. 54
Diffusion from a distributed sourcep. 60
Diffusion from a surface at fixed concentrationp. 64
Diffusion between two solids with different initial solute concentrationp. 68
The nominal diffusion distancep. 68
Solution methods for Fick's Second Law at longer time (near equilibrium)p. 72
Diffusion in a slab from a plane initial sourcep. 72
Use of image sourcesp. 73
General solutions to Fick's Second Lawp. 77
Standard solutions to long-time transient diffusion problemsp. 80
Uniform initial concentration C[subscript i] and fixed surface concentration C[subscript s]p. 80
Uniform initial concentration C[subscript i] with fixed surface flux J*p. 85
Uniform initial concentration but different boundary conditionsp. 86
Diffusion through a hollow cylinder or spherep. 88
Other solutionsp. 89
Further readingp. 90
Problems to chapter 3p. 90
Applications to problems in materials engineeringp. 96
Introductionp. 96
Boundary conditionsp. 97
Applications involving gas--solid reactionsp. 99
Introductionp. 99
Simple gas--solid reactionsp. 100
Reactions involving gas mixturesp. 104
Semiconductor dopingp. 105
Gas/solid interfaces without local equilibriump. 107
Further readingp. 109
Problems to chapter 5p. 109
Heat treatment of binary alloysp. 114
Introductionp. 114
Changing temperature within a two-phase fieldp. 115
Solution valid at short timep. 117
Solution valid at long timep. 117
Particle dissolutionp. 120
Dissolution of platesp. 120
Dissolution of spherical particlesp. 123
Growth of second-phase particles by solute rejectionp. 125
Planar growthp. 125
Precipitation of spherical particlesp. 130
Cooperative growth processesp. 132
Further readingp. 136
Problems to chapter 6p. 136
Mass transport in concentrated alloys and fluidsp. 147
Diffusion in concentrated alloys and fluidsp. 149
Concept of counter diffusionp. 150
Kirkendall effect in solidsp. 153
Interdiffusion coefficientp. 153
Diffusion couplesp. 157
Solid-state diffusion couples involving immiscible phasesp. 159
Simple diffusion couples for immiscible solids with no intermediate phasesp. 159
Couples with intermediate phasesp. 162
Diffusion in quiescent fluidsp. 166
Simple evaporationp. 167
Evaporation involving reactions at a frontp. 169
Particle condensation during evaporationp. 171
Near-surface internal precipitation in alloysp. 173
Further readingp. 176
Problems to chapter 7p. 176
Mass transport in the presence of convectionp. 183
Transient diffusion in fluidsp. 183
Mass transport at a flowing interfacep. 185
Mass transfer coefficientp. 187
Mass transfer to spheresp. 188
Mass transfer coefficient for other geometriesp. 190
Models for mass transferp. 191
Stagnant film modelp. 191
Higbie penetration modelp. 192
Application to modelling evaporation from molten metalp. 194
Quiescent systems containing internal reactionsp. 195
Further readingp. 197
Problems to chapter 8p. 197
Advanced topicsp. 202
Overall mass balancep. 202
Multi-phase resistancesp. 206
Topochemical reaction kineticsp. 209
Reduction of oxide pelletsp. 209
Gas diffusivity in porous solidsp. 212
Further readingp. 214
Problems to chapter 9p. 214
Alternative driving forces for diffusionp. 221
General driving force for diffusionp. 223
Theoryp. 223
Diffusion due to an electrical fieldp. 226
Diffusion due to mechanical stressp. 227
Vacancy diffusion due to local forcesp. 227
Application to diffusion creepp. 230
Diffusion due to surface curvaturep. 231
Diffusion due to an activity gradientp. 232
Application to 'uphill' diffusionp. 233
Further readingp. 234
Problems to chapter 10p. 234
Appendicesp. 236
Mathematical methods for the solution of Fick's Second Lawp. 236
Separation of variables methodp. 236
Laplace transform methodp. 240
Selected diffusion datap. 242
Self-diffusivity of the elementsp. 242
Solute diffusivity in compoundsp. 242
Solute diffusivity in alloysp. 243
Selected binary and pseudo-binary phase diagramsp. 244
Solving problems by developing conceptual modelsp. 258
Introductionp. 258
General method (to be adapted for particular cases)p. 259
Examplep. 261
Problems on modellingp. 264
Useful fundamental constants and conversionsp. 267
Indexp. 268
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521624947
ISBN-10: 0521624940
Series: Cambridge Solid State Science
Audience: Tertiary; University or College
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 290
Published: 13th December 2000
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 24.41 x 16.99  x 1.55
Weight (kg): 0.47

Earn 223 Qantas Points
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