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Mass Spectrometry : A Foundation Course - Kevin Downard

Mass Spectrometry

A Foundation Course

Paperback Published: 1st September 2004
ISBN: 9780854046096
Number Of Pages: 210

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Mass Spectrometry: A Foundation Course is a textbook covering the field of mass spectrometry across the chemical, physical, biological, medical and environmental sciences. Sufficient depth is provided for the reader to appreciate the reasons behind and basis for particular experiments. It is uniquely and logically organised to enable the book to form the basis for a university course in mass spectrometry at the undergraduate or postgraduate level. This is achieved by combining specific core sections coupled to optional areas of study tailored to students of the chemical, physical, biological, medical and environmental sciences. Recommended course structures are provided in the front of the book.

Dedicated chapters are included on: organic mass spectrometry; ion chemistry - to emphasise the role of mass spectrometry in fundamental chemistry and physics; biological mass spectrometry including proteomics; mass spectrometry in medicine, environmental and surface science and accelerator mass spectrometry, to emphasise the importance of these areas. Each chapter concludes with key references and additional recommended reading material, making the book an excellent springboard to further study.

Highly readable, easy-to-use and logically presented, Mass Spectrometry: A Foundation Course is an ideal text for students and for those who work with mass spectrometers who wish to gain a solid understanding of the basics in modern mass spectrometry.

"From the reviews: "


Although I am not a fan or either "eras" or "omes" you hear all the time that we now live in the era of the proteome. Setting aside the issues of what constitutes proteomics (after all people have been sequencing proteins and studying their structure for a few years nowA... ), and whether the regular appearance of reports of another organisms genome sequence prevents you from saying that we are in the post-genomic era, it is clear that the analysis of large numbers of complex protein mixtures is just about in all of our reach. This is going to be a very important way to look for molecular markers and targets in the battle against cancer.

The bedrock of proteomic analysis is mass spectrometry, which allows you to accurately measure the mass of molecules. In proteomics this can mean studying the mass of intact proteins, which can give you a clue as to their identity, and help you rapidly identify modifications. It can also mean busting the protein into many component fragments and measuring their mass, which can lead to protein identification via clever algorithms that compare measured fragment sizes to predicted ones using the genome databases.
One sign that this technology is about to become widely distributed is the appearance of relatively small softcover textbooks for beginners. These represent a reasonable first step towards initiation in this area, for those of us who left school a few years ago. There are two recent ones that I have read that I found to be particularly useful.

The first is Mass Spectrometry: A Foundation Course by Kevin Downard of Sydney, Australia.

This book covers many aspects of the field in under 200 pages, and has a handy guide to what sections are useful to individuals from different disciplines. It starts with history and concepts, and then devotes a significant amount of space to the instrumentation. This is very useful to anyone who has been to a mass spectrometry meeting and trade show or even browsed the relevant companies websites. Dr. Downard covers the basics of how each variant works, and what it is best suited for, and includes discussion of single and tandem instruments. By the end you'll be able to raise your eyebrows appreciatively the next time a salesman fires an acronym and figure at you (or at least you'll know where to look it up once you have reached a safe distance). The second half of the book looks at specific applications for mass spectrometry, and here you can read selectively on what you are interested in doing. The sections on protein analysis were good primers. The book is quite mathematical throughout, and since I have no talent in this direction, the equations merely confirmed my deficiency in this area - to those of you who like it, it is there. Then at the end are a series of very useful appendices that show amino acid masses, masses of common protein modifications and websites for further reading or for protein identification, among other useful things. I recommend this book highly to anyone looking for a first port of call on the journey to mass spectrometry." Oliver Bogler]

"From the reviews: "


Mass spectrometry today plays a vital role in a range of scientific disciplines including synthetic and physical organic chemistry, biological and medicinal chemistry and environmental and surface sciences.
In the past two decades, advances in instrument design and in computer control have brought the technique out of the basements of chemical laboratories and onto the bench of modern analytical laboratories. Advances in linking mass spectrometry to both gas and liquid chromatography have meant that chromatographers have had to learn the extra dimensions of experiment that such multi-dimensional techniques can provide. Mass spectrometry is not now confined to research but is being increasingly used by environmental agencies, clinical chemistry laboratories and anywhere advanced analytical chemistry is required.

Few introductory texts have kept up with these advances, although there have been recent specialist texts on biotechnology and on LC/MS. Downard's book seeks to provide a basis for instruction of undergraduate and new postgraduate students. His philosophy has been to write introductory sections for all the basic aspects of mass spectrometry - his 'core' course - and to add sections for the major areas in which it is employed. These additional sections can be optionally added to the core course, as desired. Downard provides a m

Industry Reviews

"Mass Spectrometry: A Foundation Course" accomplishes its goal with very few shortcomings....A text that does an exceptional job of introducing MS in a clearly written and logical fashion with sufficient depth for its intended audience of either undergraduate or graduate students......Kevin Downard has produced an excellent book, well-suited to the diverse audience he envisions..... certainly will be recommending it to both undergraduates and graduates seeking an introduction to MS" * Trends in Analytical Chemistry, February 2005 (Professor Charles Wilkins) *
I recommend this book highly to anyone looking for a first port of call on the journey to mass spectrometry * Cancer Scienceboard Net, 20 December 2004 (Dr Oliver Bogler) *
A basis for instruction of undergraduate and new postgraduate students. * Chemistry World, April 2005 (Professor Tony Mallet) *
A single text volume that is clear, uncluttered, concise and systematic.This book should find ready adoption in courses which focus on teaching of MS. * Mass Spectrometry Reviews, (Professor Philip Marriott) *
Written in a highly readable and entertaining style.Overall this book is very useful and can be recommended as an introduction for students into the presently wide applicability of mass spectrometry to a variety of disciplines. * Australian Journal of Chemistry, 2005 (Professor Nico Nibbering) *
This book should find ready adoption in courses which focus on teaching of MS, and it appears to be one of the better teaching texts in MS. * Physical Sciences Educational Reviews, Vol.6,Issue 1, June 2005 (Professor Philip Marriott) *

Guide to a Foundation Course in Mass Spectrometryp. xv
Acknowledgementsp. xvi
Mass Spectrometry's Beginningsp. 1
A Brief Historyp. 1
Early Pioneers and Cathode Raysp. 1
Positive Raysp. 1
The First Mass Spectrap. 3
Isotopes and their Implications for Mass Measurementp. 4
Discovery of Isotopesp. 4
Isotopes and Mass Measurementp. 4
Molecular Weightp. 6
Elemental Composition and Mass Accuracyp. 6
Nitrogen Rulep. 7
Double-Bond Equivalentsp. 8
Further Readingp. 9
The Mass Spectrump. 10
Concept of Charge and the Molecular Ionp. 10
Fragment Ionsp. 11
Formation of Fragment Ionsp. 11
Stability of Fragment Ionsp. 12
Stabilising Effectsp. 13
Quasi-Equilibrium Theoryp. 13
Metastable Ionsp. 16
Relative Ion Abundancep. 17
Mass Resolutionp. 18
Mass Measurement and Accuracyp. 19
Further Readingp. 21
The Mass Spectrometerp. 22
Basic Componentsp. 22
Ionisation Techniques and Interfacesp. 23
Electron Ionisationp. 23
Chemical Ionisationp. 25
Coupling Gas Chromatography to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)p. 26
Field and Plasma Desorption Ionisationp. 26
Fast Atom or Ion Bombardmentp. 27
Laser Desorption and MALDIp. 30
Spray Ionisation Methods; Thermosprayp. 33
Electrospray Ionisationp. 33
Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisationp. 35
Coupling Liquid Chromatography and Capillary Electrophoresis with Mass Spectrometryp. 36
Low Flow Rate Electrospray Ionisation - Nanosprayp. 38
Mass Analysersp. 39
Time-of-Flightp. 40
Magnetic Sectorp. 43
Quadrupolesp. 47
Quadrupole Ion Trapp. 49
Ion Cyclotron Resonancep. 51
Hybrid Instrumentsp. 54
Detectorsp. 55
Faraday Cupp. 55
Electron Multipliersp. 56
Microchannel Plate Electron Multipliersp. 57
Array Detectorsp. 58
Computer Acquisition of Datap. 59
Role of Computers in Mass Spectrometryp. 59
Analog-to-Digital Convertersp. 60
Data Processing and Interpretation Algorithmsp. 60
Vacuum Pumpsp. 61
Rotary Pumpsp. 61
Diffusion Pumpsp. 62
Turbomolecular Pumpsp. 62
Cryopumpsp. 64
Further Readingp. 65
Tandem Mass Spectrometryp. 67
Basic Principles; Precursor and Fragment Ionsp. 67
Dissociation Processes and Theoryp. 68
Collisional Activation (CA)p. 68
Collisional Activation Theoryp. 69
High (keV) and Low Energy (eV) Collisionsp. 70
Charge Reversal and Strippingp. 71
Photon-Induced Dissociation (PID)p. 72
Surface-Induced Dissociation (SID)p. 72
Electron Capture Dissociation (ECD)p. 73
Tandem Magnetic Sector Mass Spectrometersp. 73
Mass-Analysed Ion Kinetic Energy Spectra (MIKES)p. 73
Linked Scansp. 75
Tandem Quadrupole Mass Spectrometersp. 77
Tandem Mass Spectrometry on Ion Trapsp. 78
Tandem Mass Spectrometry on Quadrupole Ion Trapsp. 79
Tandem Mass Spectrometry on FT-ICRsp. 80
Tandem Mass Spectrometry on TOF/TOF Instrumentsp. 80
Tandem Mass Spectrometry on Hybrid Instrumentsp. 81
Further Readingp. 83
Organic Mass Spectrometryp. 84
Accurate Mass Measurementsp. 84
Calibrating the Mass Scalep. 84
Peak Matchingp. 85
Fragmentation of Organic Moleculesp. 86
Mass Spectral Databasesp. 86
Location of Charge and Predictive Bond Fissionp. 86
Homolytic Cleavagep. 87
Heterolytic Cleavagep. 88
[sigma]-Bond Cleavagep. 88
Rearrangementsp. 89
Fragmentation of Organic Molecules by Compound Classp. 90
Hydrocarbonsp. 90
Alcoholsp. 93
Ethersp. 95
Aminesp. 96
Aldehydes and Ketonesp. 97
Carboxylic Acids, Esters and Amidesp. 98
Halidesp. 99
Quantitative Analysis of Organic Compoundsp. 100
Role and Choice of Quantitation Standardsp. 100
Calibration of the Detector Responsep. 101
Quantitative Analysis of Cotinine; Example of Selected Ion Monitoringp. 103
Further Readingp. 103
Ion Chemistryp. 104
Electron and Proton Affinities and Measurements of Gas Phase Acidityp. 104
Electron Affinityp. 104
Gas Phase Acidity and Proton Affinityp. 105
Gas Phase Acidity Measurementsp. 107
Kinetic Methodp. 108
Ion-Molecule Reactionsp. 108
Types of Ion-Molecule Reactionsp. 108
Rates of Ion-Molecule Reactionsp. 110
Ion-Neutral Intermediate Complexesp. 110
Kinetic Isotope Effectsp. 111
Further Readingp. 112
Biological Mass Spectrometryp. 113
Ionisation of Biomolecules and Biopolymersp. 113
Peptides and Proteinsp. 114
Molecular Weight Analysisp. 114
Mass Mappingp. 115
Peptide and Protein Sequencingp. 117
Protein Structure and Foldingp. 124
Protein Complexes and Assembliesp. 128
Proteomicsp. 132
Oligonucleotides and Nucleic Acidsp. 138
Identification of Modified Nucleosidesp. 139
Sequencing of Oligonucleotides by Tandem Mass Spectrometryp. 139
Oligosaccharides and Glycoconjugatesp. 140
Sequencing of Oligosaccharides by Tandem Mass Spectrometryp. 142
Exoglycosidase Digestionp. 144
Derivatisation Approaches: Oxidative and Reductive Cleavage to Identify Branchingp. 144
Further Readingp. 146
Mass Spectrometry in Medical Researchp. 148
Characterisation and Quantitation of Drugs and Metabolitesp. 148
Introductionp. 148
Sample Preparation Techniques in Drug Discoveryp. 149
Qualitative Analysis of Organic Drugs and their Metabolitesp. 149
Quantitative Analysis of Drug Compounds and their Metabolitesp. 153
Defining Metabolic Pathways with Mass Spectrometryp. 154
Characterisation of Drug Libraries by Mass Spectrometryp. 155
Drug Screening using Mass Spectrometryp. 156
Trace Element Analysis in Nutritionp. 157
Further Readingp. 159
Mass Spectrometry in the Environmental and Surface Sciencesp. 160
Environmental Analysisp. 160
Heavy Metals and Elemental Analysisp. 160
Organic Pesticidesp. 162
Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometryp. 163
Portable Mass Spectrometersp. 165
Chemistry of the Earth's Ionospherep. 167
Mass Spectrometers in Spacep. 168
Apollo Missionsp. 169
Viking and Mars Express Missionsp. 169
Composition of a Cometp. 170
Applications of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry to Materials Sciencep. 171
Depth Profilingp. 171
Analysis of Impuritiesp. 171
Reaction Catalystsp. 172
Further Readingp. 173
Accelerator Mass Spectrometryp. 175
Introductionp. 175
Ion Sourcesp. 176
Performance and Limitations of Radiocarbon Datingp. 177
Applications of Radiocarbon Dating in Archaeology and Cosmologyp. 178
Biomedical Applicationsp. 180
Further Readingp. 181
Abbreviations used in Mass Spectrometryp. 182
Isotope Masses and Abundancesp. 185
Comparison of Common Ionisation Techniquesp. 197
Comparison of the Performance of Mass Analysersp. 198
Common Neutral Losses During the Fragmentation of Organic Compoundsp. 199
Summary of Common Fragment Ions Detected for Organic Compounds by Classp. 200
Gas Phase Acidity Datap. 201
Amino Acid Residue Masses and Modifying Groupsp. 202
Mononucleotide Residue Massesp. 203
Monosaccaride Residue Massesp. 204
Web Sites on Mass Spectrometryp. 205
Subject Indexp. 206
Table of Contents provided by Ingram. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780854046096
ISBN-10: 0854046097
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 210
Published: 1st September 2004
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.7  x 1.7
Weight (kg): 0.38

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