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Marek's Disease : An Evolving Problem - Venugopal Nair

Marek's Disease

An Evolving Problem

Hardcover Published: 30th June 2004
ISBN: 9780120883790
Number Of Pages: 208

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Marek's disease is a form of cancer of poultry caused by an important herpesvirus (MDV). It continues to be a threat to poultry health and welfare and worldwide losses are estimated to be US$ 1 billion annually. This book provides a timely review of the problems of Marek's disease with descriptions of the complex viral life cycle, how MDV targets different types of white blood cells, and details of the virus structure, its genes and proteins.
* The multiplicity of factors contributing to susceptibility is explored in detail
* Vaccination - the problems arising from current vaccination strategies and how these can be improved and made sustainable in future
* The lessons learned in the control of MD over the past 30 years, and how we can use MD as a model for other animal and human diseases is discussed

"Overall, the book is a highly recommendable addition to the library of anyone who has an interest in host-parasite interactions, especially in the area of poultry disease." - Shayan Sharif, DVM, PhD, University of Guelph, Canada for THE CANADIAN VETERINARY JOURNAL (May 2006) "This book is well suited for both pathologists and microbiologists who want to have a general overview of the complexities of Marek's disease." - VETERINARY PATHOLOGY (2006) "...On the whole, it is easy to read...Including both historical perspective and current findings, it provides a broad and comprehensive review of the subject area and the diversity of the chapters should provide something of interest to most readers. In addition to veterinary researchers, it would be suitable for undergraduate students, providing a condensed overview of the contribution of multiple disciplines on the understanding of a viral disease and problems faced in maintaining effective control measures." - MICROBIOLOGY TODAY (2005)

Contributorsp. xiii
Series Introductionp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Acknowledgementsp. xix
Abbreviationsp. xxi
Introductionp. 1
General backgroundp. 1
Jozsef Marek (1868-1952) and the identification of the diseasep. 2
Houghton Poultry Research Station and the isolation of the causative agent of Marek's diseasep. 4
The place of Marek's disease and Marek's disease virus in the biological sciencesp. 6
Acknowledgementsp. 7
Referencesp. 7
Marek's disease: long and difficult beginningsp. 8
Introductionp. 8
Early daysp. 8
Terminology and classificationp. 9
Evidence for the separation of Marek's disease from lymphoid leukosesp. 10
Clinical and pathological studies of field casesp. 10
Transmission studiesp. 11
Experimental studies comparing Marek's disease with lymphoid leukosisp. 12
Identifying the Marek's disease virusp. 12
Identification of Marek's disease herpesvirusp. 13
Circumstantial evidencep. 13
Definitive evidencep. 14
Summaryp. 15
Referencesp. 15
The genome content of Marek's disease-like virusesp. 17
Introductionp. 17
Gene content and transcription of the Mardivirusesp. 18
Transcription and gene expression during MDV latencyp. 25
Manipulation of the MDV genome: new strategy using bacterial artificial chromosomesp. 27
Summaryp. 29
Acknowledgementsp. 29
Referencesp. 29
Marek's disease virus oncogenicity: molecular mechanismsp. 32
Introductionp. 32
Meq, a Jun/Fos family member, as a putative oncogene for MDVp. 33
The structure and function of Meqp. 34
Meq as a transcriptional regulatorp. 37
Meq as a transforming proteinp. 38
Meq as a major oncoprotein in MDV oncogenesisp. 39
Meq mutations in proline-rich domains correlate with virulencep. 40
Meq's potential roles in MDV replication and latencyp. 41
Summary and implications of Meq as an oncogene for MDVp. 42
Other genes associated with pathogenicityp. 43
BamHI-H family of transcriptsp. 44
MDV phosphoprotein 38 (pp38) complexp. 44
MDV-encoded CXC chemokine, vIL-8p. 44
MDV-encoded telomerase RNAp. 45
MDV ICP4 homologue-related transcriptsp. 46
Summaryp. 46
Referencesp. 47
Marek's disease: a worldwide problemp. 49
Introductionp. 49
Diagnostic investigation of MD problemsp. 51
Economic impactp. 53
Causes of outbreaksp. 54
MD in species other than chickensp. 60
Problems associated with contamination of MD vaccinesp. 60
Summaryp. 60
Referencesp. 61
Marek's disease virus: biology and life cyclep. 62
Introductionp. 62
Natural infection with MDVp. 65
Early cytolytic phasep. 66
Latencyp. 69
Late cytolytic phasep. 71
Fully productive infection in the feather-follicle epitheliump. 71
Transformationp. 72
Conclusionsp. 75
Acknowledgementsp. 76
Referencesp. 76
Pathological responses to infectionp. 78
Introductionp. 78
Virus-cell relationships in Marek's diseasep. 79
Pathogenesis and pathology of Marek's diseasep. 79
Primary infectionp. 79
Acute cytolytic infection of lymphoid tissuep. 81
Viraemia and haematologyp. 82
Infection of feather-follicle epitheliump. 83
Infection of other parenchymatous tissuesp. 84
Peripheral neuropathyp. 84
Central nervous systemp. 88
Lymphomatosisp. 89
Atherosclerosisp. 91
Ocular changesp. 92
Factors affecting lesion typep. 92
Virus strainp. 92
Hostp. 93
Marek's disease in other speciesp. 94
Turkeysp. 94
Japanese quailp. 95
Pheasantsp. 95
Conclusionsp. 95
Referencesp. 96
Marek's disease lymphomasp. 98
Introductionp. 98
Histopathologyp. 99
Peripheral nervesp. 99
Skinp. 99
Visceral and skeletal muscle lymphomasp. 99
Lymphoma cell phenotypesp. 100
MATSAsp. 100
MDV-transformed cellsp. 101
Phenotypes of MD lymphoma cellsp. 101
The identity of the neoplastically transformed cells in MD lymphomasp. 103
Anti-lymphoma immunityp. 105
MD lymphoma regressionp. 105
Anti-MD lymphoma immunityp. 106
Transplantable tumoursp. 106
Tumour antigens in MDp. 107
Model for MD lymphomagenesisp. 108
Summaryp. 109
Acknowledgementsp. 110
Referencesp. 110
Genetic resistance to Marek's diseasep. 112
Introductionp. 112
MHC associated resistancep. 113
Structure and function of the MHCp. 114
Mechanism of MHC-determined resistance to MDp. 117
Non-MHC associated resistancep. 118
Differences in viral replication between lines 6 and 7p. 118
Phenotypic comparisonsp. 119
Investigation of candidate genesp. 120
Genomic mapping approachesp. 120
Conclusionsp. 122
Acknowledgementsp. 123
Referencesp. 123
Immunity to Marek's diseasep. 126
Introductionp. 126
MDV entry via the lungsp. 127
Role of macrophagesp. 128
Role of natural killer cellsp. 129
Acquired immune responses to MDVp. 131
Role of antibodiesp. 131
Role of cell-mediated immune responsesp. 132
Cytokine responses during the cytolytic phasep. 134
The role of cytokines in the induction and maintenance of latencyp. 135
Cytokine production by tumour cellsp. 135
Role of the MDV-encoded CXC chemokinep. 136
Immunity to MDV induced by vaccinationp. 137
Conclusionsp. 139
Referencesp. 139
Marek's disease immunosuppressionp. 142
Introductionp. 142
Mechanisms of MD-induced immunosuppressionp. 143
Immunosuppression caused by loss of lymphocytesp. 143
Immunosuppression caused by changes in the regulation of immune responsesp. 146
Nitric oxide, a dual rolep. 146
Cytokinesp. 147
Down-regulation of lymphocyte surface molecules and other immuno-evasive mechanismsp. 147
Immunosuppression caused by tumour cellsp. 148
Confounding factors in MDV-induced immunosuppressionp. 149
Chicken infectious anaemia virusp. 149
Infectious bursal disease virusp. 150
Reticuloendotheliosis virusp. 150
Reovirus infectionp. 150
Consequences of immunosuppressionp. 151
Summaryp. 152
Referencesp. 152
Diagnosis of Marek's diseasep. 156
Introductionp. 156
Diagnosis of MD under field conditionsp. 157
Laboratory diagnosis of MDp. 159
Collection of infectious material for in vitro studiesp. 159
Virus isolation and identificationp. 160
Detection and characterization of MDV antigens and antibodiesp. 161
Identification of MDV DNAp. 162
Differentiation of MDV serotypes, strains and isolatesp. 163
Summaryp. 165
Referencesp. 165
Vaccination against Marek's diseasep. 168
History of Marek's disease vaccinep. 168
Importance of vaccinationp. 170
Licensing, manufacturing and administering current MD vaccinesp. 171
In ovo vaccinationp. 172
Vaccination problems and solutionsp. 174
Attenuation of MDV and its effect on protectionp. 176
Recombinant vaccinesp. 179
Summaryp. 182
Referencesp. 182
Future strategies for controlling Marek's diseasep. 186
Introductionp. 186
Current MD situation and vaccination strategiesp. 187
Future risk of increasing the incidence of MDp. 188
Current tools for MD controlp. 189
Vaccinationp. 189
Geneticsp. 190
Biosecurityp. 191
Developing new strategies for controlp. 191
Vaccine developmentp. 191
Development of transgenic chickensp. 193
What research is needed for the rational development of new strategies of control?p. 194
Summaryp. 196
Acknowledgementsp. 198
Referencesp. 198
Conclusionsp. 200
Referencesp. 204
Key referencesp. 205
Indexp. 207
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780120883790
ISBN-10: 0120883791
Series: Biology of Animal Infections
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 208
Published: 30th June 2004
Publisher: Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 22.9 x 15.2  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.93