The year 1979 ushered in a new phase in China's long and continuous revolu- tion. Currently, this new phase is being symbolically referred to, by the Chinese leaders themselves, as the 'New Long March' (a continuation of the legendary and historical Long March) in terms of modernization, which comprises the Four Modernizations: Agriculture, Industry, Science and Technology, and Military Defense. Such an all-encompassing attempt at modernization may appear, to some at least, to be something new, or may indicate a radical shift in her policy. But upon closer examination, this decision seems only to reflect an historical continuity in terms of the two major long-term goals of the Chinese Revolution: 'national independence' and 'modernization' (or 'industrialization'). The former would make China strong; the latter, wealthy. For, ever since the Opium War in 1840 and throughout the Revolutions of 1911 and 1949, China has always pursued these two revolutionary goals, though with different emphases at different times. This has been especially true during the past three decades as this twofold goal has dictated all of China's important policies, both domestic and foreign.
In other words, while the concrete policies may have appeared to be lacking in unity at times, they have been formulated with the specific intent of achieving national independence and modernization. From this perspective, the New Long March marks the passage of post-Mao China beyond the transition of succession toward the continued pursuit of the same revolutionary goals.
The Purpose of the Study.- Methodology of the Study.- A Note on Sources.- Organization of the Study.- 1 / Mao Tse-Tung: The Man and His Time.- 1.1. Historical Perspective.- 1.11. The Traditional Period of China.- 1.12. The Modern Period of China.- 1.2. Mao Tse-tung: The Man.- 1.21. Early Years.- 1.22. Conversion to Marxism.- 1.23 The Turning Point: Mao's Rise to Power in 1935.- 1.24 The Victory of 1949.- 1.25 Main Events after 1949.- 2 / Mao's Methodology and Point of Departure.- 2.1. Textual Basis.- 2.2. Mao's Methodology.- 2.21. Synthetic Perspective.- 2.22. Historical Perspective.- 2.23. Concrete Objectivity.- 2.24. Praxiological Perspective.- 2.3. Mao's Point of Departure.- 2.31. Negatively.- 2.32. Positively.- 3 / Mao's Theory of Dialectic.- 3.1. The Concept of Contradiction.- 3.11. Contexts.- 3.12. The Philosophical Meaning of Contradiction.- 3.2. The Universality of Contradiction.- 3.21. The First Meaning.- 3.22. The Second Meaning.- 3.3. The Particularity of Contradiction.- 3.31. The Particularity.- 3.32. How to Know the Particularity.- 3.4. The Dialectic of Contradiction.- 3.41. Relativity of the Unity of Opposites.- 3.42. Absoluteness of the Struggle of Opposites.- 3.43. The Transformationality of Contradiction.- 4 / On Mao's Methodology.- 4.1. The Method of Chinese Philosophy.- 4.11. Synthetic.- 4.12. Intuition.- 4.13. Historical.- 4.14. Practical.- 4.2. On Mao's Synthetic Praxis.- 4.21. A General Remark.- 4.22. Flexibility.- 4.23. Difficulties.- 5 / A Philosophical Critique of Contradiction.- 5.1. 'Dialectical Ideas' in Chinese Thought.- 5.11. Change.- 5.12. Negation.- 5.13. Unity.- 5.14. Relationality.- 5.15. The chung-yung.- 5.16. Dialectic.- 5.2. A Critique of Contradiction as a Philosophical Term.- 5.21. Comparison with the Chinese Term Mao-tun.- 5.22. Comparison with the English Term 'Contradiction'.- 5.23. Evaluation.- 6 / A Philosophical Analysis of Mao's Theory of Dialectic.- 6.1. Universality.- 6.2. Particularity.- 6.3. Dialectic.- 6.4. A Related Question.- Conclusion.- Notes.