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Manual on the Causes and Control of Activated Sludge Bulking, Foaming, and Other Solids Separation Problems - David Jenkins

Manual on the Causes and Control of Activated Sludge Bulking, Foaming, and Other Solids Separation Problems

Paperback Published: 27th August 2003
ISBN: 9781566706476
Number Of Pages: 236

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The most common activated sludge operating problems causing poor plant performance are related to solids separation. Especially common are bulking and foaming. Without a proper scientific foundation to support the efforts of wastewater treatment plant management, many attempts to thwart bulking and foaming have failed.

Manual on Solving Activated Sludge Bulking, Foaming, and Other Solids Separation Problems provides the critical scientific and practical underpinnings needed to understand and combat these problems. The third edition of this flagship text is a comprehensive, concise guide to the microbiological and technical aspects of controlling all types of solid separation problems.

The scientific theory is applied to real-world scenarios, greatly increasing the number of real-world examples of successful control methods. New information is also included on filamentous organism growth and its application in the control of sludge bulking and foaming. Now plant operators, regulators and wastewater engineers have a complete guide for battling these formidable design and operating problems.

Solids Separation Problemsp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Solids Separation Problemsp. 1
Activated Sludge Flocp. 1
Solids Separation Problems in Terms of Floc Structurep. 3
Dispersed Growthp. 3
Viscous Bulkingp. 3
Pin Flocp. 4
Filamentous Bulkingp. 4
Foam/Scump. 5
Differentiation of Microbial and Process-Related Solids Separation Problemsp. 7
Methodsp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Microscopic Examination Methodsp. 9
Filament Counting Methodsp. 9
Total Extended Filament Lengthp. 9
Filament Countp. 9
Nocardioform Filament Organism Countingp. 9
Floc and Filamentous Microorganism Characterizationp. 9
Introductionp. 9
Sampling Pointsp. 10
Sampling Frequencyp. 11
Sample Transport and Storagep. 11
Microscopep. 12
Camerasp. 13
Staining Proceduresp. 13
Sample Preparationp. 13
Floc Characteristics and Overall Filament Abundancep. 14
Floc Sizep. 15
Floc Characteristicsp. 15
Protozoa and Other Macroorganismsp. 15
Nonbiological Organic and Inorganic Particlesp. 15
Bacterial Coloniesp. 15
Cells Dispersed in Bulk Solutionp. 16
Effects of Filamentous Organisms on Floc Structurep. 17
Filamentous Organism Abundancep. 17
Filamentous Organism Characteristicsp. 17
Branchingp. 17
Motilityp. 18
Filament Shapep. 18
Locationp. 18
Attached Bacteriap. 18
Sheathp. 18
Cross-Walls (Cell Septa)p. 19
Filament Widthp. 19
Filament Lengthp. 19
Cell Shapep. 19
Cell Sizep. 19
Sulfur Depositsp. 21
Other Granulesp. 21
Staining Reactionsp. 21
Additional Observationsp. 22
Filamentous Organism Identificationp. 23
Using the Dichotomous Keyp. 23
Building Your Skillsp. 23
Filamentous Organism Descriptionsp. 23
Sphaerotilus natans (Figures 2.9c, 2.13b, 2.14f, and 2.21a)p. 24
Type 1701 (Figure 2.21b)p. 24
Haliscomenobacter hydrossis (Figure 2.21c)p. 27
Type 021N (Figures 2.11b, 2.13d, 2.14d, 2.14e, 2.15c, 2.18a, 2.19b, and 2.22a)p. 27
Thiothrix I (Figures 2.14b, 2.15a, 2.19c, and 2.23a)p. 27
Thiothrix II (Figures 2.19d, 2.23c, and 2.23d)p. 28
Type 0914 (Figures 2.15d, 2.24a, and 2.24b)p. 29
Beggiatoa sp. (Figures 2.15b, 2.22c, and 2.22d)p. 30
Nostocoida limicola I (Figure 2.25a)p. 30
Nostocoida limicola II (Figures 2.10e, 2.11c, 2.17b, 2.18e, and 2.25b)p. 32
Nostocoida limicola III (Figure 2.25c)p. 33
Type 0411 (Figure 2.26a)p. 34
Type 0961 (Figure 2.26b)p. 34
Type 0092 (Figures 2.18d and 2.26c)p. 35
Type 0581 (Figure 2.26d)p. 35
Type 0041 (Figures 2.10a, 2.12a, 2.13c, 2.14a, 2.17c, 2.18f, and 2.27a)p. 35
Type 0675 (Figure 2.27b)p. 37
Type 1851 (Figures 2.17d and 2.27c)p. 37
Type 0803 (Figure 2.27d)p. 37
Microthrix parvicella (Figures 2.17e, 2.18c, 2.28a, 5.1e, and 5.1f)p. 37
Nocardioforms (Figures 2.9b, 2.10f, 2.14g, 2.17f, 2.18b, 2.28b, 5.1a, 5.1b, 5.1c and 5.1d)p. 37
Type 1863 (Figures 2.10c, 2.14c, and 2.28c)p. 37
Type 0211 (Figure 2.28d)p. 41
Flexibacter sp. (Figure 2.29a)p. 43
Bacillus sp. (Figure 2.29b)p. 43
Cyanophyceae (Figure 2.29c)p. 43
Fungi (Figures 2.9a and 2.29d)p. 43
Progress in Identifying Filamentous Organismsp. 44
Protozoa And Metazoap. 45
Generalp. 45
Microscopic Evaluationp. 46
Taxonomic Classificationp. 47
Flagellatesp. 47
Amoebaep. 47
Free-Swimming Ciliatesp. 47
Attached Ciliatesp. 48
Rotifersp. 48
Higher Invertebratesp. 48
Use of Protozoa and Metazoa as Indicator Organismsp. 48
Physical and Chemical Methodsp. 49
Settling Testsp. 50
Foaming Testsp. 50
Methods for Differentiating Microbiological and Process-Related Solids Separation Problemsp. 51
Dispersed SS (DSS)p. 51
Flocculated SS (FSS)p. 51
Secondary Effluent SS (ESS)p. 52
Applications and Results of Microscopic Examination of Activated Sludgep. 57
Introductionp. 57
Filament Countingp. 57
Filamentous Organism Identification in Activated Sludgep. 58
Results of Filamentous Organism Surveysp. 58
Diagnosis of Causes of Solids Separation Problems through Microscopic Examinationp. 59
Generalp. 59
Nonmicrobial Particlesp. 60
Other Microbiological Featuresp. 61
Generalp. 61
Limited Diversityp. 61
Dispersed Growthp. 62
Neisser-Positive Cell Clumpsp. 65
Yeastp. 66
Zoogloeasp. 66
Selector Flocsp. 66
Nitrifying Bacteriap. 67
Denitrifying Bacteriap. 67
Spirochaetes, Spirillum, and Flexibacterp. 67
Exocellular Materialp. 67
Algaep. 68
Filamentous Organismsp. 69
Relationship to Causes of Bulkingp. 69
Nutrient Balancep. 69
Readily Metabolizable Soluble Organicsp. 69
Sulfidep. 70
Lipidsp. 70
Other Particulate Substratesp. 70
Case Studyp. 70
Net Growth Rate (MCRT, F/M)p. 71
Aeration Basin Configuration and Redox Conditionsp. 71
Wastewater Feeding Regimep. 72
Foam Trapping Featuresp. 72
Upstream Biological Treatment Units, Sewer Surfaces, and In-Plant Surfacesp. 73
DO Concentrationp. 73
pHp. 73
Temperaturep. 73
Summaryp. 74
Control of Activated Sludge Bulking and Other Settling Problemsp. 77
Introductionp. 77
General Approachp. 77
Rapid, Nonspecific Bulking Control Methodsp. 78
Manipulation of RAS Flow Rates and Aeration Basin Feed Pointsp. 78
Secondary Clarifier Operating Principlesp. 78
Activated Sludge Process Schematic and Definitionsp. 78
Secondary Clarifier Process Operating Relationshipsp. 78
Degree of Thickening Achieved by Secondary Clarifierp. 79
Required RAS Flow Ratep. 79
Secondary Clarifier Capacityp. 79
Sludge Thickening Theoryp. 79
Secondary Clarifier Analysis and Operationp. 83
System Analysis and Operationp. 85
Addition of Chemicals and Inert Solids to Enhance Activated Sludge Settling Ratesp. 87
Addition of Disinfectants to Selectively Kill Filamentous Organismsp. 89
Generalp. 89
Use of Chlorination for Bulking Controlp. 90
Chlorination Criteriap. 90
General Guidelinesp. 92
Chlorination System Designp. 93
Monitoring Effects of Chlorine Additionp. 93
Case Histories of Bulking Control Using Chlorinationp. 94
Generalp. 94
City of Albany, GAp. 94
City of San Jose/Santa Clara Water Pollution Control Plant, CAp. 96
Stroh Brewing Co., Longview, TXp. 97
Plastics Manufacturing Wastewater Activated Sludge System, WVp. 98
Use of Hydrogen Peroxide for Bulking Controlp. 101
Generalp. 101
City of Petaluma, CAp. 102
Use of Ozone for Bulking Controlp. 102
Filamenticidesp. 102
Specific Methods of Bulking Controlp. 102
Nutrient Deficiencyp. 103
Generalp. 103
Macronutrient Deficiencyp. 103
Generalp. 103
Factors Affecting Macronutrient Requirementsp. 103
Availability of Macronutrientsp. 103
Satisfying Macronutrient Demandsp. 104
Required Residual Macronutrient Concentrationsp. 106
Micronutrientsp. 107
Low Dissolved Oxygen (DO) Concentrationsp. 108
Generalp. 108
Case Historiesp. 109
Orange County Sanitation District Plant, Fountain Valley, CAp. 109
Pulp and Paper Wastewater Activated Sludge Plantp. 109
City of Woonsocket, RIp. 109
Effect of Aeration Basin Configuration, Wastewater Feeding Method, and Redox Conditions on Activated Sludge Settling Characteristicsp. 110
Effect of Aeration Basin Configurationp. 110
Selectorsp. 111
Selector Effectp. 112
General Observationsp. 112
Selector Mechanismsp. 112
Effects of Selectorsp. 117
Selector Design (Sizing)p. 118
Generalp. 118
Initial Contact Zonesp. 118
Aerobic Selectorsp. 118
Anoxic Selectorsp. 119
Anaerobic Selectorsp. 120
Main Aeration Basinp. 120
Selector Case Historiesp. 120
Leopoldsdorf Sugar Mill, Austriap. 120
Hamilton, OHp. 120
Davenport, IAp. 122
Tri-City, Clackamas County, ORp. 123
Fayetteville, ARp. 124
Hyperion Treatment Plant, Los Angeles, CAp. 125
23rd Avenue Plant, Phoenix, AZp. 125
Situations Where Selectors Are Not Effectivep. 126
High Effluent SS Due to Clarification Problemsp. 127
Generalp. 127
Problem Definitionp. 128
Method of Investigationp. 128
Resultsp. 128
Problem Resolutionp. 128
Inadequate Flocculation, Floc Break-Up (High ESS, High DSS[subscript i], Low FSS)p. 128
Clarifier Hydraulic Problems (High ESS, Low DSS, Low FSS)p. 129
Bioflocculation Problems (High DSS[subscript i], High FSS, High ESS)p. 129
Activated Sludge Foaming and Controlp. 131
Activated Sludge Foamingp. 131
Types of Activated Sludge Foamp. 131
Nocardioform Foamingp. 132
Extent and Significance of Problemsp. 132
Foaming Organism Surveysp. 132
Foaming Problemsp. 132
Activated Sludgep. 132
Anaerobic Digestersp. 133
Pathogenic Nocardioformsp. 135
Proposed Mechanisms of Foamingp. 135
Introductionp. 135
Physical/Chemical Factorsp. 135
Nature of Foamp. 135
Solids-Containing Foamsp. 136
Roles of Surfactantsp. 136
Anaerobic Digester Foamingp. 137
Foam Trapping and Recyclingp. 137
Foaming Testsp. 139
Microbiological Factorsp. 140
Factors Affecting Growthp. 140
MCRT and Temperaturep. 141
pHp. 143
Nocardioform Controlp. 144
Nocardioform Growth in Activated Sludgep. 144
Introductionp. 144
Aerobic Selectorsp. 144
Anoxic Selectorsp. 146
Anaerobic Selectorsp. 147
Classifying Selectors and Selective Foam Wastingp. 151
Chlorinationp. 154
Cationic Polymer Additionp. 154
Automatic MCRT Controlp. 156
Microthrix parvicellap. 156
Factors Affecting M. parvicella Growthp. 156
Generalp. 156
Substratesp. 156
Operating Conditionsp. 156
Controlp. 158
Case Historiesp. 158
Upper Occoquan Sewage Authority (UOSA), VAp. 158
Northside Wastewater Treatment Plant, Tulsa, OKp. 159
Anaerobic Digester Foamingp. 160
Bibliography and Referencesp. 163
Indexp. 179
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781566706476
ISBN-10: 1566706475
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 236
Published: 27th August 2003
Publisher: Taylor & Francis Inc
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 27.9 x 21.6  x 1.47
Weight (kg): 0.59
Edition Number: 3
Edition Type: New edition