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Low Dose Exposures in the Environment : Dose-Effect Relations and Risk Evaluation - C. Streffer

Low Dose Exposures in the Environment

Dose-Effect Relations and Risk Evaluation

Hardcover Published: 3rd May 2004
ISBN: 9783540210832
Number Of Pages: 471

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The ever-increasing release of harmful agents due to human activities has led in some areas of the world to heavy pollution. In order to protect human health and the environment, environmental standards that shall limit the release and the concentration of those toxic agents in the environment and hence the exposure to it have to be established. The related assessment and decision-making procedures have to be based on solid scientific data about the effects and mechanisms of these agents as well as on ethical, social and economic aspects. For risk evaluation, the knowledge of the dose response curve is an essential prerequisite. Dose responses without a threshold dose are most critical in this connection. Such dose responses are assumed for mutagenic and carcinogenic effects, which, therefore, dominate also the discussion in this book. In the environmentally important low dose range, risk estimation can only be achieved by extrapolation from higher doses with measurable effects. The extrapolation is accompanied with uncertainties which makes risk evaluation as well as risk communication frequently problematic. In order to ensure rational efficient and fair decisions beyond a sound scientific assessment the dialogue between disciplines, with the affected people and with the general public is necessary. In this book, the whole range of relevant and essential aspects of risk evaluation and standard setting is addressed. Starting with the ethical foundations, the sound analysis of recent scientific findings sets the frame for further reflections by theory of cognition, psychosocial sciences, and jurisprudence. The authors end up with concluding recommendations for coping with the recent problems of standard setting in the field of environmentally relevant low doses. The book is designed to a readership of scientists, legislators, administrators, and the interested public.

Ethical Aspects of Risk
Effects of Ionising Radiation in the Low Dose Range - Radiobiological Basis
Toxicology of Chemical Carcinogens
Epidemiological Perspectives on Low Dose Exposure to Human Carcinogens
Mathematical Models of Carcinogenesis
Comparing Summary of Action of Ionising Radiation and Chemicals in Carcinogenesis
Hypothesis Testing and the Choice of the Dose-Response Model
Risk Evaluation and Communication
Low Doses in Health-Related Environmental Law
Recommendations for Environmental Risks to Human Health: Evaluation and Regulatory Processes
Table of Contents provided by Publisher. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9783540210832
ISBN-10: 3540210830
Series: Wissenschaftsethik Und Technikfolgenbeurteilung
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 471
Published: 3rd May 2004
Publisher: Springer-Verlag Berlin and Heidelberg Gmbh & Co. Kg
Country of Publication: DE
Dimensions (cm): 23.39 x 15.6  x 2.69
Weight (kg): 0.87