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Logical Tools for Modelling Legal Argument : A Study of Defeasible Reasoning in Law - H. Prakken

Logical Tools for Modelling Legal Argument

A Study of Defeasible Reasoning in Law

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Published: 31st October 1997
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This book is a revised and extended version of my PhD Thesis 'Logical Tools for Modelling Legal Argument', which I defended on 14 January 1993 at the Free University Amsterdam. The first five chapters of the thesis have remained almost completely unchanged but the other chapters have undergone considerable revision and expansion. Most importantly, I have replaced the formal argument-based system of the old Chapters 6, 7 and 8 with a revised and extended system, whieh I have developed during the last three years in collaboration with Giovanni Sartor. Apart from some technical improvements, the main additions to the old system are the enriehment of its language with a nonprovability operator, and the ability to formalise reasoning about preference criteria. Moreover, the new system has a very intuitive dialectieal form, as opposed to the rather unintuitive fixed-point appearance of the old system. Another important revision is the split of the old Chapter 9 into two new chapters. The old Section 9. 1 on related research has been updated and expanded into a whole chapter, while the rest of the old chapter is now in revised form in Chapter 10. This chapter also contains two new contributions, a detailed discussion of Gordon's Pleadings Game, and a general description of a multi-Iayered overall view on the structure of arguĀ­ mentation, comprising a logieal, dialectical, procedural and strategie layer. Finally, in the revised conclusion I have paid more attention to the relevance of my investigations for legal philosophy and argumentation theory.

`The main contribution of Prakken's work is its organization and expression of non-technical ideas. Prakken successfully makes the best possible case for logic as a tool for modeling legal reasoning. He has written the best, most technically detailed, and fairest survey of the formal work on argument and defeasible reasoning.' Ronald P. Loui, Artificial Intelligence and Law, 3 (1995) `... Prakken has written the best current text with which the interested logician can quickly study the main surviving applicable ideas of non-monotonic reasoning and can glimpse the themes that are shaping current research in defeasible reasoning.' The Journal of Symbolic Logic, 64:4 (1999)

Prefacep. xi
Introductionp. 1
AI, Logic and Legal Reasoning: Some General Remarksp. 1
An Overviewp. 1
Artificial Intelligencep. 2
Computable Aspects of Legal Reasoningp. 5
The Role of Logicp. 6
The Focus of Researchp. 7
Logic and AIp. 8
The Declarative vs. Procedural Debatep. 8
Logics and Programming Systemsp. 9
Logic and Reasoningp. 11
Points of Departurep. 12
The Structure of this Bookp. 13
The Role of Logic in Legal Reasoningp. 15
Three Misunderstandings about Logicp. 16
'To Formalize is to Define Completely'p. 16
'Formalization Leaves No Room for Interpretation'p. 17
'Logic Excludes Nondeductive Modes of Reasoning'p. 18
The 'Deductivist Fallacy'p. 18
'Naive Deductivism'p. 19
The Criticismp. 20
The Misunderstandingp. 23
The Merits of the Criticismp. 25
Noninferential Reasoning with Logical Toolsp. 26
Rule-based and Case-based Reasoningp. 30
Summaryp. 31
The Need for New Logical Toolsp. 33
The Separation of Rules and Exceptions in Legislationp. 34
Terminologyp. 35
Examplesp. 36
Formalizations in Standard Logicp. 37
Nonstandard Methodsp. 41
Defeasibility of Legal Rulesp. 47
Open Texturep. 49
Classification Problemsp. 50
Defeasibility of Legal Conceptsp. 52
Vaguenessp. 54
Which Nonstandard Techniques are Needed?p. 55
Reasoning with Inconsistent Informationp. 55
Nonmonotonic Reasoningp. 56
AI-and-law Programs with Nonstandard Featuresp. 61
The Law as Logic Programsp. 61
Taxman IIp. 61
Gardner's Programp. 62
Cabaretp. 63
Logics for Nonmonotonic Reasoningp. 67
Nonmonotonic Logicsp. 68
Consistency-based Approachesp. 68
Autoepistemic Logicp. 73
Minimizationp. 76
Conditional Approachesp. 87
Inconsistency Handlingp. 89
General Issuesp. 93
Preferential Entailmentp. 93
Properties of Consequence Notionsp. 94
Connectionsp. 96
Truth Maintenance Systemsp. 97
Objections to Nonmonotonic Logicsp. 97
'Logic is Monotonic'p. 97
Intractabilityp. 99
Representing Explicit Exceptionsp. 101
Introductionp. 102
Methods of Representing Rules and Exceptionsp. 102
Kinds of Exceptionsp. 102
Requirements for Representing Rules and Exceptionsp. 103
Default Logicp. 105
Specific Exception Clausesp. 106
General Exception Clausesp. 107
Evaluationp. 111
Circumscriptionp. 112
Poole's Framework for Default Reasoningp. 117
Logic-programming's Negation as Failurep. 120
Specific Exception Clausesp. 121
General Exception Clausesp. 122
Logic Programs with Classical Negationp. 125
Summaryp. 129
Evaluationp. 129
A Formalization Methodologyp. 130
Directionality of Defaultsp. 134
Contrapositive Inferencesp. 135
Assessment of the Exception Clause Approachp. 136
Preferring the Most Specific Argumentp. 141
Introductionp. 141
Poole: Preferring the Most Specific Explanationp. 143
Problemsp. 148
Some Possible Facts are Irrelevantp. 148
Multiple Conflicts Ignoredp. 149
Defaults Cannot be Represented in Standard Logicp. 150
A System for Constructing and Comparing Argumentsp. 151
General Remarksp. 151
The Underlying Logical Languagep. 152
Argumentsp. 154
Conflicts Between Argumentsp. 156
Comparing Argumentsp. 158
Informal Summaryp. 163
The Assessment of Argumentsp. 163
The General Ideap. 163
The Dialogue Game Definedp. 166
Illustrationsp. 170
Combining Priorities and Exception Clausesp. 172
Extending the Systemp. 172
Illustrationsp. 175
Evaluationp. 177
Reasoning with Inconsistent Informationp. 179
Introductionp. 179
Existing Formalizations of Inconsistency Tolerant Reasoningp. 180
Alchourron and Makinson (1981)p. 181
Belief Revision Approachesp. 183
Brewka's Preferred-subtheories Approachp. 187
Diagnosisp. 188
Hierarchical Defeatp. 191
General Features of the Systemp. 193
Properties of the Consequence Notionp. 193
Sceptical and Credulous Reasoningp. 195
Floating Conclusionsp. 196
Accrual of Agreementsp. 198
Conclusionp. 200
Reasoning About Priority Relationsp. 203
Introductionp. 203
Legal Issuesp. 204
Legal Collision Rulesp. 204
Requirements for a Formal Analysisp. 205
Extending the Definitionsp. 206
A Formalization Methodologyp. 210
Examplesp. 212
An Alternative Methodp. 217
Systems for Defeasible Argumentationp. 219
Argumentation Systemsp. 219
Some Argumentation Systemsp. 221
The Bondarenko-Dung-Kowalski-Toni Approachp. 221
Pollockp. 226
Lin and Shohamp. 229
Vreeswijk's Abstract Argumentation Systemsp. 230
Nute's Defeasible Logicp. 232
Simari and Louip. 235
Geffner and Pearl's Conditional Entailmentp. 235
General Comparisonp. 237
Other Relevant Researchp. 238
Brewka's Later Workp. 238
Reason-based Logicp. 240
Using the Argumentation Systemp. 249
A Comparison of the Methods for Representing Exceptionsp. 249
Implementational Concernsp. 253
Applicationsp. 255
Toulmin on the Structure of Argumentsp. 255
The System as a Tool in Reasoningp. 256
A Logical Analysis of Some Implemented Systemsp. 258
Gardner's Programp. 258
Cabaretp. 261
Applications of Logic Metaprogrammingp. 262
Freeman and Farley's Dart Systemp. 263
The Pleadings Gamep. 264
Four Layers in Legal Argumentationp. 270
Conclusionp. 275
Summaryp. 275
Main Resultsp. 276
Implications for Other Issuesp. 281
Suggestions for Further Researchp. 284
Notations, Orderings and Glossaryp. 287
General Symbols and Notationsp. 287
Ordering Relationsp. 288
Notions of the Argumentation System of Chapters 6-8p. 289
Glossaryp. 289
Referencesp. 293
Indexp. 303
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780792347767
ISBN-10: 0792347765
Series: Law and Philosophy Library
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 314
Published: 31st October 1997
Publisher: Springer
Country of Publication: NL
Dimensions (cm): 23.4 x 15.6  x 2.54
Weight (kg): 1.42
Edition Type: Revised