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Lighting for Health and Safety - Smith

Lighting for Health and Safety

By: Smith

Paperback Published: 14th March 2000
ISBN: 9780750645669
Number Of Pages: 248

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Artificial lighting has become so commonplace that it can sometimes be taken for granted and therein lies a possible minefield of related health and safety problems.


Lighting for Health and Safety guides the reader through the fundamentals of vision and lighting. It highlights the potential health and safety problems that can develop as a consequence of inadequate lighting and, further, advises of the necessary remedies available, in order to produce optimum lighting conditions for the workplace.
This book will therefore assist the practitioner in compliance with legislation.
First book to address this field
Written for the practising professional
First book to address this field
NO competing alternatives
Written for the practising professional, not the theoretician

Industry Reviews

The author is undoubtedly an expert in this area. This is the sort of text to use as a reference...a useful addition to the library of those involved in or planning significant work in the lighting field.' Health and Safety at Work. Sept. 2000

'Lighting for Health and Safety would be a useful book for practitioners to have to hand but that list (listing typical maintained illuminance values for a range of activities, across spectrum of industry) could be regarded as making it essential', Health and Safety Review, Oct. 2000

'This is the first comprehensive book I have seen covering the fundamentals of vision and lighting....Easy to read and understand.....I would recommend the book in particular to occupational health and hygiene staff', Kit Artus, chairwoman, RCN Society of Occupational Health Nursing, in Occupational Health, Oct. 2000

'Those studying at diploma level and beyond will find this an excellent source of material on lighting in the workplace.' Safety & Health Practitioner, January 2001

"Dr. Smith has produced a handy primer that covers a wide range of lighting issues in a logical and easily accessible manner. Those concerned with the influence of lighting on health and safety will find many useful reminders on the theroy and practice of indoor and external lighting."

David Asker-Browne, O' heal (Occupational Health & Environmental Assessments Ltd)

Prefacep. xiii
Acknowledgementsp. xiv
Introductionp. 1
History of light sourcesp. 1
Fundamentalsp. 4
The electromagnetic spectrump. 4
Optical radiationp. 5
Ultraviolet and infrared radiationp. 5
Continuous and discontinuous radiation 2.4.1 Spectral power distribution (SPD)p. 6
Spectral power distribution (SPD)p. 7
Black body radiationp. 7
Wavelength, frequency and the velocity of propagation of lightp. 8
Radiant flux and radiant efficiencyp. 8
Luminous flux, luminous efficacy and luminous efficiencyp. 8
Luminous intensityp. 8
Illuminance and luminancep. 9
Luminosityp. 10
Laws of illuminationp. 11
Inverse square lawp. 11
Cosine lawp. 12
Combination lawp. 14
Relationship between luminous intensity and luminous fluxp. 15
Relationship between illuminance and luminancep. 16
Specular reflectionp. 17
Refractionp. 18
Dispersionp. 18
Absorption and scatteringp. 19
Diffuse reflection and diffuse transmissionp. 20
Physiology and characteristics of visionp. 21
Introductionp. 21
Structure of the human eyep. 21
Photoreceptors -- rods and conesp. 23
Neurophysiologyp. 25
Formation of images on the retinap. 25
Blind spotp. 27
Excitation of rodsp. 27
Excitation of conesp. 28
Visual pathwayp. 29
Spectral sensitivity of the eyep. 30
Radiation and the eyep. 32
Visual thresholdp. 32
Photopic and scotopic visionp. 33
Mesopic visionp. 34
Visual discriminationp. 35
Accommodation, convergence and stereopsisp. 35
Field of visionp. 38
Adaptationp. 38
Dark adaptationp. 38
Light adaptationp. 40
Problems associated with twilightp. 40
Colour adaptationp. 41
Visual acuityp. 41
Photopic acuityp. 43
Relationship between cones and visual acuityp. 43
Scotopic acuityp. 44
Static and dynamic visual acuityp. 45
Visual perceptionp. 45
Perception by sightp. 46
Defects and anomalies of visionp. 47
Introductionp. 47
Glarep. 47
Induction and disability glarep. 47
Phototropism and discomfort glarep. 48
Persistence of visionp. 49
After-imagesp. 49
Flickerp. 49
Hypermetropiap. 50
Myopiap. 50
Presbyopiap. 51
Astigmatismp. 52
Diplopiap. 52
Colour blindnessp. 53
Monochromatsp. 53
Dichromatsp. 53
Trichromatsp. 53
Colour vision testsp. 53
Night blindnessp. 54
Effects of agep. 55
Glaucomap. 55
Colourp. 56
Colour definitions and terminologyp. 56
Hue, lightness and saturationp. 56
Munsell colour solidp. 56
CIE chromaticity diagramp. 57
Planckian radiatorp. 57
Dominant wavelengthp. 59
Chromaticity of the visible spectrump. 60
Lamp colour appearancep. 61
Colour temperature and correlated colour temperaturep. 61
Colour rendering and colour rendering index (CRI)p. 63
Colour contrastp. 65
Colour perception and productionp. 66
Colour mixing and complementary coloursp. 67
Colour codingp. 68
Colours used for transport signalsp. 70
Metamerismp. 70
Photochromismp. 71
Achromatic intervalp. 71
Effects of environmental colour on individualsp. 72
Natural and artificial light sourcesp. 73
Daylightp. 73
Availability of daylightp. 73
Daylight factorp. 74
Emission of light from heated bodiesp. 75
Types of spectrap. 76
Emission of light from gas dischargesp. 77
Tungsten lampsp. 78
Tungsten filament lampsp. 78
Tungsten halogen lampsp. 79
Dichroic reflector lampsp. 81
Discharge lampsp. 82
Introductionp. 82
Low pressure mercury or fluorescent lampsp. 84
High pressure mercury vapour lampsp. 86
Metal halide lampsp. 87
Low pressure sodium lampsp. 88
High pressure sodium lampsp. 91
Induction lampsp. 92
Lasersp. 93
Display laser lighting installationsp. 94
Optical fibresp. 95
Luminescencep. 95
Lamp characteristicsp. 96
Lamp designationsp. 96
Lamp efficacyp. 96
Lamp lifep. 98
Lamp applicationsp. 98
Lamp run-up efficiencyp. 98
Blue light hazardp. 100
Lamps used for other than normal lighting applicationsp. 100
Standard illuminantsp. 102
Beta lampsp. 103
Tyndall beam lampp. 104
Handling of new lamps and the disposal of spent lampsp. 105
Ultraviolet radiation from tungsten halogen lampsp. 106
Ultraviolet radiation from high intensity discharge lampsp. 107
Effects of operating broken mercury vapour and metal halide lampsp. 107
Luminairesp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Optical control of light output from luminairesp. 110
Distribution of light from luminairesp. 112
Polar diagramp. 113
Isocandela diagramp. 113
Isolux diagramp. 113
Luminaires for hazardous and hostile environmentsp. 113
Classification of luminaires according to relevant British Standardsp. 115
BS 4533p. 115
BS 5345p. 115
BS 6467p. 116
Downlighter luminairesp. 116
Air handling luminairesp. 117
Uplighter luminairesp. 117
Luminaire materialsp. 118
Mechanical strength of luminairesp. 119
Control gearp. 119
Electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI)p. 120
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)p. 120
Lighting for interior applicationsp. 121
Introductionp. 121
Office lightingp. 121
Techniques and practice of interior lightingp. 122
Lumen method of lighting designp. 123
Preferred illuminance and luminance ratios for interiorsp. 124
Lighting for areas containing display screen equipmentp. 125
Uplighter installationsp. 125
Lamp types for use in interiorsp. 128
Methods of reducing glare from windowsp. 129
Temporary methodsp. 129
Permanent methodsp. 129
Room indexp. 130
Automatic control of lighting within officesp. 130
Emergency lightingp. 132
Emergency escape lightingp. 132
Stand-by lightingp. 132
Escape route lightingp. 132
Open area (anti-panic area) lightingp. 133
High risk area task lightingp. 133
Luminaires for use in emergency lighting installationsp. 133
Sick building syndrome and building related illnessp. 133
Lighting for external applicationsp. 135
Introductionp. 135
Factoriesp. 135
General factory external layout lightingp. 135
Lighting for loading baysp. 136
Lighting for storage areasp. 136
Security lightingp. 137
Security lighting for shops and small premisesp. 138
Security lighting for officesp. 138
Security lighting for factoriesp. 139
Floodlightingp. 140
Building floodlightingp. 140
Industrial floodlightingp. 141
Sports floodlightingp. 143
Public lightingp. 143
Road lightingp. 144
Tunnel lightingp. 145
Lighting for externally located advertising signsp. 146
Lighting for use with closed circuit television (CCTV) systemsp. 146
Light pollutionp. 148
Causesp. 148
Remediesp. 149
Visual task lightingp. 150
Introductionp. 150
Importance of lighting in the workplacep. 150
Analysis of the working visual taskp. 151
Visibility of an objectp. 153
Factors influencing the ability to see detailp. 153
Quality of illuminationp. 154
Visual comfortp. 154
Glare in the working environmentp. 156
Control of discomfort glarep. 156
Direct and reflected glarep. 157
Veiling reflectionsp. 159
Use of daylight for task lightingp. 161
Luminance contrast and contrast rendering factor (CRF)p. 162
Uniformity ratio and diversity ratiop. 164
Spacing-to-height ratio (SHR)p. 164
Influence of illuminance on human visual characteristicsp. 165
Flicker and the stroboscopic effectp. 165
Light modulationp. 166
Loss of perceptionp. 168
Poor task lighting - effects on worker posturep. 168
Effects of age of individual on task visionp. 169
Preferred task lighting strategiesp. 171
Typical recommended illuminance valuesp. 173
Lighting for specific industries and occupationsp. 175
Introductionp. 175
Lighting for inspectionp. 175
General inspection lighting techniquesp. 175
Detection of form defectsp. 175
Detection of detail defectsp. 177
Detection of colour defectsp. 177
Special techniques for inspection lightingp. 177
Lighting for engineering workshopsp. 178
Lighting for textile and clothing manufacturing industriesp. 179
Lighting for building and construction sitesp. 179
Lighting for electrical and electronic equipment manufacture and assemblyp. 181
Lighting for food and drink industriesp. 181
Lighting for metal working industriesp. 182
Lighting for furniture and timber industriesp. 182
Lighting for glass industriesp. 182
Lighting for premises used for health carep. 182
Lighting for paper and printing industriesp. 183
Lighting for miningp. 183
Lighting for hazardous and hostile environmentsp. 184
Lighting for dockyards and shipbuildingp. 184
Lighting for horticulturep. 185
Workers exposed to ultraviolet radiationp. 185
Lighting and display screen equipmentp. 187
Introductionp. 187
Radiation associated with the use of display screen equipmentp. 187
Screen imagep. 188
Resolutionp. 190
Flicker and refresh ratep. 190
Jitterp. 191
Screen contrastp. 191
Active and passive displaysp. 191
Cathode ray tubes (CRTs)p. 191
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs)p. 191
Glare control on VDU screensp. 191
Lighting for VDU areasp. 192
Optimum conditions for visual comfort in display screen equipment operatorsp. 194
Lighting surveysp. 197
Introductionp. 197
Instrumentationp. 197
Illuminance measuring equipmentp. 198
Luminance measuring equipmentp. 198
Daylight factor metersp. 198
Survey methodsp. 198
Determination of the minimum number of measuring pointsp. 199
Presentation of informationp. 199
Method of separating illuminance contributions due to daylight and artificial lightingp. 202
Interpretation of the data obtainedp. 203
Recommendationsp. 204
Legislationp. 206
Overviewp. 206
Legislation in the United Kingdomp. 207
Introductionp. 207
Acts, regulations and approved codes of practicep. 208
The law relating to lightingp. 208
Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1992p. 208
Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992p. 209
Health and Safety (Display Screen Equipment) Regulations 1992p. 210
Health and Safety (Safety Signs and Signals) Regulations 1996p. 210
Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations 1998p. 210
Electricity at Work Regulations 1989p. 211
Electromagnetic Compatibility Regulations 1992p. 211
Docks Regulations 1988p. 212
Electrical Equipment (Safety) Regulations 1994p. 212
Supply of Machinery (Safety) Regulations 1992p. 212
Control of Substances Hazardous to Health Regulations 1994p. 212
Special Waste Regulations 1996 (as amended)p. 213
Compliance with health and safety lawp. 213
Referencesp. 215
Suggested further readingp. 217
Indexp. 219
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780750645669
ISBN-10: 0750645660
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 248
Published: 14th March 2000
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.24  x 1.27
Weight (kg): 0.39
Edition Number: 1

Earn 398 Qantas Points
on this Book