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Light Science : Physics and the Visual Arts - Thomas D. Rossing

Light Science

Physics and the Visual Arts

Hardcover Published: 24th September 1999
ISBN: 9780387988276
Number Of Pages: 442

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Visual arts depend on light to communicate, and an understanding of the physical properties of light and color should enhance the communication for both the artist and the viewer.
This book is intended for students in the visual arts and for others with an interest in art, but with no prior knowledge of physics. It presents the science of light - that is, the science behind what and how we see. The approach emphasizes phenomena rather than mathematical theories and the joy of discovery rather than the drudgery of derivations - the opposite of "heavy science."
The text includes numerous problems, questions for discussion, and suggestions for simple experiments. It considers such questions as
- why is the sky blue?
- what is the nature of light?
- how do mirrors and prisms affect the color of light?
- how do compact disks work?
- what can visual illusions tell us about the nature of perception?
And it discusses such topics as: the optics of the eye and camera; the physiology of the eye and the nature of color vision; the different kinds of sources of light; photography and holography; symmetry in art and nature; color in printing and painting; computer imaging and processing.

Industry Reviews

...aspects of this book are gems and I felt almost driven to want to develop a course which might be based on sections of it...the authors show deep knowledge of and empathy for their material. It is fascinating and close to inspirational...the experiments are the crowning glory and make the book worth every penny for the university teacher of light and optics. This is brilliant stuff.

--The Physicist

Prefacep. vii
Our World of Light and Colorp. 1
Rainbowsp. 2
Blue Skies and Red Sunsetsp. 5
Why Clouds Are Whitep. 5
The Color of Waterp. 6
Green Leaves of Summer, Crimson Leaves of Autumnp. 7
What Is Color?p. 7
Mixing Colors by Additionp. 9
Mixing Colors by Subtractionp. 10
Color in Artp. 12
Shadowsp. 13
Pinhole Camerap. 15
Summaryp. 16
The Mystery of Lightp. 23
The Nature of Light: Particles or Waves?p. 23
Wavesp. 24
Progressive Wavesp. 25
Impulsive Waves: Reflectionp. 25
Superposition and Interferencep. 29
Standing Wavesp. 30
Electromagnetic Wavesp. 31
Speed of Lightp. 32
The Particle Nature of Light: Observing Photonsp. 34
Wave Propagation in Two and Three Dimensionsp. 35
The Doppler Effectp. 37
Water Wavesp. 38
Summaryp. 41
Reflection, Mirrors, and Kaleidoscopesp. 49
Images Formed by Plane and Curved Mirrorsp. 51
Concave Mirrorsp. 55
Convex Mirrorsp. 59
Anamorphic Artp. 60
Kaleidoscopesp. 62
Other Applications of Mirrors in the Visual Artsp. 65
Mirrors in the Performing Arts: One-Way Mirrorsp. 69
Summaryp. 71
Refraction of Lightp. 79
Bending of Light at a Boundaryp. 79
Snell's Lawp. 81
Dispersionp. 82
Total Internal Reflectionp. 83
Diamondsp. 86
Lensesp. 86
Image Formation by Lensesp. 87
Converging Lensp. 88
Diverging Lensp. 90
Stopped Lensp. 91
Simple Camerasp. 92
The Human Eyep. 93
Telescopes and Microscopesp. 95
Summaryp. 97
Interference and Diffractionp. 105
Interference of Waves from Two Identical Sourcesp. 105
Light Passing Through Two Slits: Young's Experimentp. 106
Interference in Thin Filmsp. 108
Michelson Interferometerp. 111
Applications of Interferencep. 111
Antireflection Coatingsp. 111
Multilayer Mirrorsp. 112
Multilayer Interference Filtersp. 113
Diffractionp. 113
Combined Interference and Diffractionp. 116
How Diffraction Limits Resolutionp. 119
Multiple Slits and Gratingsp. 120
3-D with Jumping Colorsp. 121
Summaryp. 121
Light Sourcesp. 129
Blackbody Radiationp. 129
Spectra of Light Sourcesp. 131
Spectral Sensitivity of the Eyep. 132
Measuring Illuminationp. 133
Atomsp. 134
Fluorescence and Phosphorescencep. 136
Laser Lightp. 137
Light-Emitting Diodesp. 140
Gas-Filled Arc Lampsp. 142
Summaryp. 143
Polarized Lightp. 151
Polarization by Selective Absorptionp. 152
Law of Malusp. 154
Three Polaroid Filtersp. 155
Polarization by Reflectionp. 155
Polarization by Double Refraction: Birefringencep. 157
Polarization by Scatteringp. 159
Three-Dimensional Imagesp. 160
Wave Platesp. 162
Photoelasticityp. 163
Optical Activityp. 163
Applications of Polarized Light in Artp. 165
Summaryp. 166
Color Visionp. 173
Spectral Colorp. 174
Photoreceptors in the Eyep. 176
Additive Color Mixing (Revisited)p. 178
Transmission and Reflection of Colored Light Subtractive Color Mixing Revisitedp. 180
Spectral and Monochromatic Filtersp. 181
Spectral Power Distribution of Filtered Lightp. 182
Spectral Reflectancep. 183
Color Perceptionp. 184
How Many Colors Can We See?p. 184
Afterimagesp. 185
Contrastp. 185
Color Constancyp. 186
Paints and Inksp. 187
Halftone Printingp. 187
Four-Color Printingp. 187
Color Systemsp. 188
Theories of Color Visionp. 192
Sources of Colorp. 193
Colored Glassp. 194
Glazes and Enamelsp. 194
Paintp. 195
Summaryp. 196
Holographyp. 203
Transmission Hologramsp. 204
Virtual and Real Imagesp. 205
Two-Beam Transmission Hologramsp. 206
Reflection Hologramsp. 207
Bragg Reflectionp. 208
Transfer Hologramsp. 209
Rainbow (Slit-Transfer) Hologramsp. 209
Phase Hologramsp. 210
Color Hologramsp. 210
Lippmann Color Hologramsp. 211
Multicolor Rainbow Hologramsp. 212
Pseudocolor Through Shrinkagep. 212
Multiple Scenesp. 213
Holographic Stereogramsp. 213
Embossed Hologramsp. 214
Holographic Interferometryp. 214
Real-Time Interferometryp. 215
Double-Exposure Interferometryp. 215
Time-Averaged Interferometryp. 216
TV Holographyp. 217
Photopolymersp. 220
Computer-Generated Hologramsp. 220
Summaryp. 220
Photographyp. 225
Evolution of Photographyp. 225
Camerasp. 227
Focal Lengths, f-Numbers, and Field of Viewp. 229
Filmp. 232
Color Filmp. 234
Color Reversal Filmsp. 235
Color Negative Filmsp. 236
Instant Color Filmsp. 237
Lighting for Color Photographyp. 237
High-Speed Flash Photographyp. 237
Digital Photographyp. 240
Summaryp. 240
Computer Imagesp. 245
Evolution of Computer Imagingp. 245
What Is a Computer?p. 249
Bits and Bytesp. 251
Graphic Displaysp. 252
Softwarep. 252
The Imaging Processp. 253
Computer-Aided Designp. 256
Computer Animationp. 257
Motion Capture and Performance Animation: Digital Puppetsp. 258
Visual Effects for "Titanic"p. 259
Summaryp. 260
Optical Recording, Communication, and Photonicsp. 263
Optical Storage and the Compact Discp. 263
Recordable Compact Discsp. 266
DVDp. 267
DVD for Movies and Videop. 267
DVD for Computersp. 269
DVD for Audiop. 269
Optical Communicationp. 269
Optical Computingp. 270
Optical Scannersp. 271
Holographic Memoriesp. 272
The Mousep. 273
The Future of Photonicsp. 274
Summaryp. 276
Symmetry in Art and Naturep. 281
Translational Symmetryp. 281
Rotational Symmetryp. 283
Reflection Symmetryp. 286
Inversion Symmetryp. 286
Snowflakesp. 288
Right-Hand and Left-Hand Symmetryp. 289
Chirality and Lifep. 291
Spirals and Propellersp. 291
Symmetry and Conservation Lawsp. 292
Symmetry of Tilesp. 295
Border Art: Classes of Translational Symmetryp. 296
Decorative Patterns: Classes of Planar Symmetryp. 297
Summaryp. 299
Visual Perception and Illusionsp. 303
Visual Illusionsp. 304
Everyday Illusionsp. 304
Classifying Illusionsp. 307
Ambiguous Figuresp. 310
Distortion Illusionsp. 312
Impossible Figuresp. 316
The Grand Illusion: How Artists Produce a Sense of Depthp. 318
Aerial Perspective and Rayleigh Scatteringp. 320
Shadows and Illuminationp. 322
The Magic of Linear Perspectivep. 323
The Use of Depth Cues: From the Sublime to the Impossiblep. 324
Summaryp. 327
Numerical Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercisesp. 333
Standard International (SI) Units of Measurementp. 335
Scientific or Exponential Notationp. 337
Mathematical Helpsp. 339
Graphsp. 340
Glossaryp. 342
Materials in Paintingsp. 353
Analysis of Art Using Physics and Chemistryp. 359
Conservation and Restoration of Artp. 361
Laboratory Experimentsp. 365
Exploring Colorp. 365
Shadows and Light Raysp. 368
Waves on a Coiled Spring (Slinky)p. 370
Transverse and Longitudinal Waves in One Dimensionp. 372
Standing Waves on a Wirep. 374
Waves in Two Dimensions (Ripple Tank)p. 375
Law of Reflection and Plane Mirrorsp. 378
Construct a Kaleidoscopep. 382
Image Formation by Concave Mirrorsp. 385
Refraction and Total Internal Reflectionp. 387
Converging Lensp. 390
Simple Magnifier and Telescopep. 392
Diffraction and Interference of Water Wavesp. 393
Diffraction Gratingp. 394
Diffraction from Tracks of a Compact Discp. 396
Michelson Interferometerp. 398
Spectrum Analysis with a Prism Spectrometerp. 399
Spectrum Analysis with a Diffraction Gratingp. 400
Exploration of Polarized Lightp. 401
Color Perceptionp. 405
Mixing Pigments: Subtractive Color Mixingp. 410
Making a Reflection Hologramp. 412
Making a Transmission Hologramp. 413
Making a Cylindrical Hologramp. 416
Holographic Imagesp. 417
Exploring a Single-Use Camera with Built-In Flashp. 418
Field of View and Depth of Field of a Camera Lensp. 421
Symmetry Explorationp. 421
Name Indexp. 427
Subject Indexp. 431
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780387988276
ISBN-10: 0387988270
Series: Undergraduate Texts in Contemporary Physics
Audience: General
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 442
Published: 24th September 1999
Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.62 x 18.29  x 3.3
Weight (kg): 0.95