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Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy : Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe - Gregory M. Luebbert

Liberalism, Fascism, or Social Democracy

Social Classes and the Political Origins of Regimes in Interwar Europe

Paperback Published: 25th July 1991
ISBN: 9780195066111
Number Of Pages: 432

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This work provides a sweeping historical analysis of the political development of Western Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Arguing that the evolution of most Western European nations into liberal democracies, social democracies, or fascist regimes was attributable to a discrete set of social class alliances, the author explores the origins and outcomes of the political development in the individual nations. In Britain, France, and Switzerland, countries with a unified middle class, liberal forces established political hegemony before World War I. By coopting considerable sections of the working class with reforms that weakened union movements, liberals essentially excluded the fragmented working class from the political process, remaining in power throughout the inter-war period. In countries with a strong, cohesive working class and a fractured middle class, Luebbert points out, a liberal solution was impossible. In Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Czechoslovakia, political coalitions of social democrats and the "family peasantry" emerged as a result of the First World War, leading to social democratic governments. In Italy, Spain, and Germany, on the other hand, the urban middle class united with a peasantry hostile to socialism to facilitate the rise of fascism.

"An exceptional piece of scholarship. It deserves to be required reading for any student of European politics or political development."--Journal of Politics "Luebbert's book is an impressive achievement in its comparative scope and its unrelenting, tenacious defense of a clear analytical thesis."--American Political Science Review "Comprehensive, original, beautifully argued."--Mary Anderson, Holy Names College "An exceptional piece of scholarship. It deserves to be required reading for any student of European politics or political development."--Journal of Politics "Luebbert's book is an impressive achievement in its comparative scope and its unrelenting, tenacious defense of a clear analytical thesis."--American Political Science Review "Comprehensive, original, beautifully argued."--Mary Anderson, Holy Names College

Introductionp. 1
The Origins
Ties That Would Divide: Liberal--Labor Alliances in Britain, France, and Switzerland before the Warp. 15
Britainp. 15
Francep. 27
Weakness of the Labor Movement in Britain and Francep. 37
Switzerlandp. 48
Epiloguep. 52
Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movements in Late Nineteenth-Century Europep. 55
Liberal Weakness: A Surveyp. 56
Some Explanations of Liberal Weaknessp. 59
Cleavage Structures and the Failure of Liberal Movementsp. 63
Modernization, Cleavages, and Political Strugglesp. 97
Where Backwardness Matteredp. 98
Epiloguep. 107
The Break with Liberalism and the Formation of Working-Class Movementsp. 110
Abortive Lib--Labism and the Rise of Working-Class Movementsp. 110
Germanyp. 115
Norwayp. 121
Swedenp. 125
Denmarkp. 133
Belgium and the Netherlandsp. 139
Italyp. 144
Spainp. 151
Imperialism, Nationalism, and Class Integrationp. 153
A Note on Leadership and Choicep. 156
Epiloguep. 157
The Organization of Workers: Liberal and Aliberal Societies Comparedp. 159
Partiesp. 159
Trade Unions: Membership and Organizational Coherencep. 169
A Note on Industrial Concentrationp. 180
A Note on the Role of the Statep. 181
Epilogue: Toward the Great Warp. 184
The Outcomes
War, Crisis, and the Stabilization of the Liberal Orderp. 191
Postwar Crises and Liberal Responsesp. 194
The Defeat of the Working-Class Movementp. 199
Stabilization of the Liberal Orderp. 226
Epiloguep. 232
Narrowing the Aliberal Outcomes: Liberalism's Final Failure and the Irrelevance of Traditional Dictatorshipp. 234
Neither Liberalism Nor Lib--Labismp. 236
Politics against Marketsp. 249
Irrelevance of Traditional Dictatorshipp. 258
Social Democracy and Fascismp. 267
Social Democracy: The Scandinavian Solutionp. 267
Fascism: The Solution of Germany, Italy, and Spainp. 272
Family Peasantry: A Pivotal Forcep. 277
Red-Green Alliance and Social Democratic Hegemonyp. 285
Rural Class Conflicts and Fascist Hegemonyp. 295
Epiloguep. 303
Conclusion: Class Alliances and Transition to Mass Politicsp. 306
A Structuralist Argumentp. 306
Structuralism and Other Arguments Comparedp. 307
Drawing Lessons from Europep. 310
Notesp. 317
Bibliographyp. 377
Indexp. 403
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780195066111
ISBN-10: 0195066111
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 432
Published: 25th July 1991
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 23.5 x 15.57  x 2.85
Weight (kg): 0.6