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Lexical Semantics : Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics - D. A. Cruse

Lexical Semantics

Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics

Paperback Published: 17th November 1986
ISBN: 9780521276436
Number Of Pages: 328

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Lexical Semantics is about the meaning of words. Although obviously a central concern of linguistics, the semantic behaviour of words has been unduly neglected in the current literature, which has tended to emphasize sentential semantics and its relation to formal systems of logic. In this textbook D. A. Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined way the descriptive and generalizable facts about lexical relations that any formal theory of semantics will have to encompass. Among the topics covered in depth are idiomaticity, lexical ambiguity, synonymy, hierarchical relations such as hyponymy and meronymy, and various types of oppositeness. Syntagmatic relations are also treated in some detail. The discussions are richly illustrated by examples drawn almost entirely from English. Although a familiarity with traditional grammar is assumed, readers with no technical linguistic background will find the exposition always accessible. All readers with an interest in semantics will find in this original text not only essential background but a stimulating new perspective on the field.

Typographic conventionsp. xi
Prefacep. xiii
A contextual approach to lexical semanticsp. 1
Introductoryp. 1
Meaning and grammarp. 1
The data of semanticsp. 8
Disciplining intuitionsp. 10
The meaning of a wordp. 15
Notesp. 20
The syntagmatic delimitation of lexical unitsp. 23
Introductoryp. 23
Semantic constituentsp. 24
Semantic constituents which fail the testp. 29
Indicators, tallies and categorisersp. 32
Phonetic elicitors of semantic traitsp. 34
Wordsp. 35
Idiomsp. 37
Degrees of opacityp. 39
Idioms and collocationsp. 40
Idiom and 'dead' metaphorp. 41
Notesp. 45
The paradigmatic and syntactic delimitation of lexical unitsp. 49
Introductoryp. 49
Selection and modulation of sensesp. 50
'Indirect' tests for ambiguityp. 54
Direct criteria for ambiguityp. 58
Some difficult casesp. 62
Non-lexical sources of ambiguityp. 66
Establishment of sensesp. 68
Sense-spectrap. 71
Syntactic delimitationp. 74
Lexemesp. 76
Notesp. 80
Introducing lexical relationsp. 84
Preliminariesp. 84
Congruencep. 86
Cognitive synonymyp. 88
Hyponymyp. 88
Compatibilityp. 92
Incompatibilityp. 93
Congruence variantsp. 95
Partial relationsp. 96
Quasi-relationsp. 97
Pseudo-relationsp. 98
Para-relationsp. 99
Syntagmatic relations of meaning between lexical unitsp. 100
Notesp. 109
Lexical configurationsp. 112
Introductoryp. 112
Hierarchiesp. 112
Proportional seriesp. 118
Notesp. 134
Taxonomiesp. 136
Hyponymy and incompatibilityp. 136
Taxonymyp. 137
Characteristics of natural taxonomiesp. 145
Over-specification, under-specification and the generic levelp. 155
Notesp. 155
Meronomiesp. 157
Introductory: parts and piecesp. 157
Defining meronymyp. 160
Aspects of transitivity: integral parts and attachmentsp. 165
Characteristics of meronomiesp. 168
Close relatives of the part-whole relationp. 172
Meronomies and taxonomiesp. 177
Notesp. 180
Non-branching hierarchiesp. 181
Introductoryp. 181
From branching to non-branchingp. 181
Chains, helices and cyclesp. 187
Ranks, grades and degreesp. 192
Notesp. 195
Opposites I: complementaries and antonymsp. 197
Oppositenessp. 197
Complementariesp. 198
Antonymsp. 204
Sub-classes of antonymsp. 206
Inherentnessp. 214
Implicit superlativesp. 216
Stative verbsp. 217
Contrastive aspectsp. 218
Notesp. 220
Opposites II: directional oppositionsp. 223
Directional oppositesp. 223
Directionsp. 223
Antipodalsp. 224
Counterpartsp. 225
Reversivesp. 226
Relational opposites: conversesp. 231
Indirect conversesp. 233
Congruence variants and pseudo-oppositesp. 240
Notesp. 242
Opposites III: general questionsp. 244
Impartialityp. 244
Polarityp. 246
Linguistic polarity and natural polarityp. 247
Logical polarityp. 252
Neutralisation and semantic markednessp. 255
The nature of oppositionp. 257
What makes a 'good' opposition?p. 262
Notesp. 262
Synonymyp. 265
Absolute synonyms and the scale of synonymityp. 265
Cognitive synonymsp. 270
Plesionymsp. 285
Congruence relations and synonymyp. 289
'Absolute', 'cognitive' and 'plesio-' relations outside synonymyp. 290
Notesp. 291
Referencesp. 295
Subject indexp. 302
Author indexp. 309
Table of Contents provided by Syndetics. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9780521276436
ISBN-10: 0521276438
Series: Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics
Audience: Professional
Format: Paperback
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 328
Published: 17th November 1986
Country of Publication: GB
Dimensions (cm): 22.68 x 15.24  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.46

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