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Lexical Diversity and Language Development : Quantification and Assessment - David D. Malvern

Lexical Diversity and Language Development

Quantification and Assessment

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Published: 28th May 2004
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Vocabulary richness, including lexical diversity and use of rare words, has an important role in assessing proficiency, diagnosing progress and testing theory in the study of language development. This book first reviews different methods for quantifying how vocabulary is deployed in spontaneous speech and writing, and then introduces an alternative approach which can assess overall lexical diversity, measure morphology development and compare the development of different word classes. The new approach is illustrated by its application to first and second language learners.

'This book represents a major contribution to the study of both lexical diversity and language development... [and] provides the most comprehensive and compelling study available to date of vocabulary measurement, including type-token ratios, number of different words, and word length. The innovative, empirically validated, and user-friendly measure of lexical diversity (VOCD - or simply D) that it proposes is based on deep understanding of mathematical models combined with rich background in language acquisition and language assessment. The culmination of fifteen years of cooperative research between David Malvern, Brian Richards, and their co-authors at the University of Reading, this study represents the best of inter-disciplinary research. In style, the book is both erudite and readable. It should be an invaluable source of reference for scholars and graduate-level students in general and psycho-linguistics, in first and second language acquisition, language education, and language pathology.' - Ruth A. Berman, Professor Emeritus, Department of Linguistics, Tel Aviv University



'David Malvern and his co-authors have developed a new and very promising approach to the study of lexical diversity and language development. Their statistical method is far more sophisticated than anything we have had in the past. This book will be of great interest to the developmental psycholinguistic community.' - Professor Jean Berko Gleason, Department of Psychology, Boston University

List of Tablesp. xi
List of Figuresp. xiii
Acknowledgementsp. xv
Measuring Lexical Diversity
Introductionp. 3
Lexical diversity versus vocabulary richnessp. 3
Overview of the content of this monographp. 4
Lexical diversityp. 5
Research using lexical diversity as a variablep. 6
Analysis of historical documentsp. 7
Studies of authors' style and dating works of literaturep. 7
Forensic linguisticsp. 7
Demographic influences on vocabulary usep. 8
Second language and bilingualismp. 8
Language assessmentp. 8
Linguistic input and interactionp. 10
The 'noun bias' issuep. 11
Language impairment and delayp. 11
Specific language impairmentp. 12
Intervention studiesp. 13
Language in dementiap. 13
Aphasiap. 13
Schizophreniap. 14
Conclusionp. 14
Traditional Approaches to Measuring Lexical Diversityp. 16
The number of different words (NDW)p. 16
The type-token ratio (TTR)p. 19
Mean segmental type-token ratio (MSTTR)p. 25
Other linguistic measures of rangep. 25
Transformations of TTRp. 26
Conclusionp. 29
A Mathematical Model of Lexical Diversityp. 31
A seminal paperp. 31
The harmonic series hypothesis and further developmentsp. 36
Using population statisticsp. 40
The most complete formulationp. 41
A mathematical model for diversityp. 47
Operationalising the modelp. 49
A mathematical expression for ideal curvesp. 50
Producing the graphs from real datap. 51
Standardising how the measurement is madep. 54
Making the measurement, D, and vocdp. 55
Summaryp. 57
Validation of the Model and its Application to Language Corpora
Early Child Language 1: the New England Corpusp. 63
Testing vocdp. 63
Investigating sensitivity to sample sizep. 64
Methodp. 65
Resultsp. 66
Reliabilityp. 68
Stabilityp. 68
Internal consistencyp. 68
Morphemicisationp. 69
Criterion-related validityp. 70
Discussionp. 71
Conclusionp. 73
Early Child Language 2: the Bristol Corpusp. 76
The Bristol Corpusp. 76
Measures from the Bristol projectp. 78
Methodp. 80
The preparation of transcriptsp. 80
The calculation of Dp. 81
Resultsp. 81
The three versions of Dp. 81
D (stem forms)p. 84
Criterion-related validityp. 86
Discussionp. 89
Conclusionp. 93
Lexical Diversity and the Investigation of Accommodation in Foreign Language Proficiency Interviewsp. 95
Background: the oral interviewp. 95
Methodp. 98
The studentsp. 99
Student variablesp. 100
Resultsp. 102
The studentsp. 102
The relationship between teacher D and student measuresp. 104
Conclusionp. 108
A New Measure of Inflectional Diversity and its Application to English and Spanish Data Setsp. 110
Inflectional diversity in the New England Corpusp. 111
Inflectional diversity in the Bristol Corpusp. 111
The Spanish datap. 113
Conclusionp. 116
Different Word Categories and their Diversity: Type-Type versus Type-Token
Comparing the Diversity of Lexical Categories: the Type-Type Ratio and Related Measuresp. 121
Type-type ratiosp. 121
Rare wordsp. 123
Diversity versus sophisticationp. 123
Intrinsic versus extrinsic measurement of rarityp. 125
Extrinsic rarity measures in bilingual and second language researchp. 127
Laufer and Nation's lexical frequency profilep. 128
Early child language and 'The home-school study of language and literacy development' of Dickinson, Snow and Taborsp. 129
The relationship between rarity measures and sample sizep. 131
Vocabulary composition and early lexical stylep. 134
The effect of sample sizep. 136
The 'noun bias' issuep. 138
Nouns versus verbs: the effect of sample sizep. 142
An empirical demonstrationp. 142
A proposed solution to the sample size problemp. 147
Programming for limiting relative diversity (LRD)p. 148
LRD for Anne and her motherp. 149
Conclusionp. 150
Lexical Diversity and Lexical Sophistication in First Language Writingp. 152
Overview of the studyp. 153
Methodp. 154
The datap. 154
The quantitative text variablesp. 155
Coding schemes and analytical proceduresp. 161
Resultsp. 162
Trends in the text level variablesp. 162
Inter-correlationsp. 170
Regression analysisp. 170
Discussionp. 171
Differences by Key Stage and Levelp. 172
Predicting National Curriculum Levelsp. 172
Conclusion
Overview and Conclusionsp. 179
Flawed measures and confused resultsp. 179
A more robust measurep. 180
Interpreting the values of Dp. 181
Cross-linguistic comparisons of lexical diversityp. 183
In conclusionp. 184
Notesp. 185
Glossary of technical terms and acronymsp. 187
Referencesp. 203
Appendices
Key to the CHAT Transcripts in Appendices II-IVp. 221
Extract from a Transcript in the Bristol Corpusp. 222
A French Transcript from the Reading Corpusp. 224
Extract from the Manchester Corpus Illustrating the %mor Tierp. 226
Documentation for vocdp. 228
Using vocdp. 228
Sample sizep. 228
Preparation of filesp. 228
The minimum command linep. 229
The output from vocdp. 229
Text-handling optionsp. 230
Combining options on the command linep. 234
Example of standard output from vocd using a transcript from the New England Corpusp. 235
Output from the limiting relative diversity (LRD) option in vocd using a file from Anne (anne03a.cha) in the Manchester Corpusp. 238
Indexp. 244
Table of Contents provided by Rittenhouse. All Rights Reserved.

ISBN: 9781403902313
ISBN-10: 1403902313
Audience: Professional
Format: Hardcover
Language: English
Number Of Pages: 253
Published: 28th May 2004
Publisher: Palgrave USA
Country of Publication: US
Dimensions (cm): 21.6 x 14.0  x 1.91
Weight (kg): 0.5
Edition Number: 1